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- “Type 2 diabetes mellitus” can be defined as a chronic condition or impairment in which the body regulates as well as uses glucose as fuel.
- It is associated with family-related non-modifiable risk factors and modifiable risk factors.
- Around 1.3 million people in Australia were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in 2020 (Aihw.gov.au, 2020).
Figure 1: Self-reported type II Diabetes in Australia from 2017-18 in men and women of above 18 age group
(Source: Aihw.gov.au, 2020)
SN: This slide illustrates the introduction of the topic. Diabetes mellitus has been identified as a global health issue and is considered a silent pandemic. It is the 9th leading cause of death, and 1.5 million deaths were estimated in 2019 as a result of this issue. It has been found that diabetes increases with age, and 1 out of 5 Australians aged 80-84 have been diagnosed with diabetes.
Slide 2: Risk factors
- Risk factors describe the characteristics increasing the likelihood of developing a health disorder in the person.
- The modifiable risk factors increasing complications of diabetes include being overweight, having hypertension, poor diet, increased smoking and decreased physical activity (Aihw.gov.au, 2020).
- The non-modifiable risk factors include age, ethnicity, genetic framework, and parental history of diabetes (Aihw.gov.au, 2022).
Figure 2: Risk factors associated with type II diabetes
(Source: Wan et al. 2019)
This slide describes the modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors associated with diabetes mellitus. It has been identified that the risk factors of diabetes Mellitus in Australia include improper eating habits of the population. A large number of the Australian population is obese due to reduced physical activity leading to the increased consequences of diabetes.
Slide 3: Impact
- It has resulted in the death of 11% Australian population, and 1.2 million people were hospitalised due to diabetes mellitus in 2018 (Aihw.gov.au, 2022).
- This disease has increased the healthcare cost imparting a burden of $6 billion on the government for its prevention.
- Estimation shows that the increasing rate of this disease would result in a loss of 21400 labour forces by 2030 (Aihw.gov.au, 2020).
- It would also increase the national cost to $A807 million in 2030, and it is considered one of the costliest chronic diseases is affecting society (Schofield et al. 2017).
This slide states the impact of diabetes mellitus on the Australian population. It has been found that due to this, Australians have to pay extra welfare costs, and it results in GDP and tax revenue loss.
Figure 3: Impact of diabetes in Australia
(Source: (Aihw.gov.au, 2020)
Slide 4: Challenges
- The major challenge of the Australian government in this context is providing better healthcare facilities to the indigenous people (Wan et al. 2019).
- Another challenge in this regard is the absence of a structured approach to diabetes management.
- The early detection and monitoring of this complication is also a challenge for the Australian government (Aridi et al. 2020).
This slide describes the challenges faced by the Australian government in managing this chronic condition.
Figure 4: Challenge of diabetes mellitus management in Australia
(Source: (Health.gov.au, 2021)
Slide 5: Prevention
- The Australian government has a 10-year plan to support the national population suffering from diabetes.
- The “Australian National Diabetes strategy” 2021-2030 would help the government in improving the detection, prevention and management of disease among the Australian population (Health.gov.au, 2021).
- The government has made significant investments of $626 million in National health research (Health.gov.au, 2021).
This slide discusses the efforts made by the Australian government to curb the disease. It has been found the government is maximising investments to improve healthcare structure and efficient use of healthcare costs.
Figure 5: Australian Policy to prevent Diabetes mellitus
(Source: Health.gov.au, 2021)
Aridi, Y. S., Walker, J. L., Roura, E., & Wright, O. R. (2020). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet and chronic disease in Australia: national nutrition and physical activity survey analysis. Nutrients, 12(5), 1251. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12051251
Schofield, D., Shrestha, R. N., Cunich, M. M., Passey, M. E., Veerman, L., Tanton, R., & Kelly, S. J. (2017). The costs of diabetes among Australians aged 45–64 years from 2015 to 2030: projections of lost productive life years (PLYs), lost personal income, lost taxation revenue, extra welfare payments and lost gross domestic product from Health&WealthMOD2030. BMJ open, 7(1), e013158. DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013158
Wan, C. S., Abell, S., Aroni, R., Nankervis, A., Boyle, J., & Teede, H. (2019). Ethnic differences in prevalence, risk factors, and perinatal outcomes of gestational diabetes mellitus: a comparison between immigrant ethnic Chinese women and Australian?born Caucasian women in Australia. Journal of Diabetes, 11(10), 809-817. DOI: 10.1111/1753-0407.12909
Aihw.gov.au, (2022). Diabetes: Australian facts. Retrieved on: 5th September, 2022. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes-australian-facts/contents/diabetes-risk-factors
Aihw.gov.au, (2020). Diabetes. Retrieved on: 5th September, 2022. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes/contents/how-many-australians-have-diabetes/type-2-diabetes
Aihw.gov.au, (2022). Diabetes: Australian facts. Retrieved on: 5th September, 2022. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes-australian-facts/contents/summary
Aihw.gov.au, (2020). Diabetes. Retrieved on: 5th September, 2022. Retrieved from: https://www.aihw.gov.au/reports/diabetes/diabetes/contents/impact
Health.gov.au, (2021). New 10 year plan to support Australians with diabetes. Retrieved on: 5th September, 2022. Retrieved from: https://www.health.gov.au/ministers/the-hon-greg-hunt-mp/media/new-10-year-plan-to-support-australians-with-diabetes