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Introduction: Initiate and Lead Applied Research
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Q1. Describe communication processes and the Importance of such when conducting applied research
- Definition of the Communication process
Communication is procedure which starts with the conceptualizing thoughts given by the sender who conveys the message via channel to the next person called a receiver, who further provides feedback in the signal or message this all steps are conducted in the given period as cited by Baran, (2015). Thus, this process of communication includes several steps and parties which are as follows:
- Sender: the sender also known as a communicator is the individual or person who starts the communication and develops the idea that he/she tries to transmit to others.
- Encoding: in this step, the sender starts with the process of encoding where he/she opts for using some kind of verbal method such as symbols, body, signs, etc. for translating the necessary information into an understandable communicative message.
- Message: After finishing the encoding, the part collects the message which was intended to convey. The message could be a form of oral, symbolic, written, or non-verbal, etc, or any other form of signal which initiates the response of the receiver.
- Communication channels: it is the responsibility of the sender to select the source of a communication channel by which he/she needs to send or transmit message to the receiver. The channel of communication must be carefully chosen to make the message correctly interpreted by the recipient. There is various forms of communication oral, virtual, and sound, etc.
- Receiver: he/she is the individual for whom the message is draft in the first place. The receiver makes efforts to understand the message in the suitable possible manner which further helps in attaining the objective of communication. The decoding of the message is dependent on the information of the subject, relationship, experience, and trust the receiver has with the sender.
- Feedback: the final step in the procedure is ensures that the receiver has received message and understood the message correctly or not. Feedback upsurges the efficiency of communication as it permits the sender to get information about the efficiency of the message intended.
- Explain why it is important
Communication plays a very essential role in the management of every organization, as it is a tool for sharing ideas, thoughts, opinions, and plans in each part of an organization. Good communication is needed to build a good relationship but also needs in a successful business (as cited by McQuail and Windahl, 2015). That is why communication has tremendous importance in every organization and it also helps in increasing efficiency at the workplace.
Q2: Describe four communication methods that you may consider using in relation to applied research
- Written communication
Written Communication is the procedure in which the transmission of the message is done through various written symbols. More specifically, any kind of message interchanged in-between two persons who practices written words this process is called written communication as cited by Cargill and O'Connor, (2021). It is quite mutual and a very operative mode of business communication method. In an organization, reports, memos, emails, letters, journals, etc. are some most commonly used written communication.
- Verbal communication
Verbal Communication is type of oral communication in which the message is transmitted by spoken words. In this, the sender speaks regarding his/her feelings, ideas, thoughts, and expressing them in form of speeches, deliberations, and presentations. The efficiency of this communication is subjected to the tone or pitch of the speaker how he is speaking, volume, speed, and body language which is the most important part, and last the quality of words selected to be spoken in the conversation. In this form of communication, feedback is instant as there are fast conveyance and delivery of the message in-between the sender and receiver.
- Non-verbal communication
It is the procedure of transmitting the actual meaning of a message without using words in either of the way spoken or written. It is communication between two or persons by facial expressions, body and hand movement, postures, etc is known as non-verbal communication. According to Phutela, (2015) it is unlike verbal communication, which further helps in upholding the personal relationship but this communication helps in communicating through external events of the organization. Company or people simply use non-verbal communication in expressing their emotions and intrapersonal attitudes.
- Visual communication
Visual communication is the communication of ideas and information by using various symbols and images. It is quite popular among all three forms of communication, along with verbal communication which includes speaking, and this communication includes speed, tone, body language, etc as cited by Sless, (2019). Visual communication is the communication on which people are dependent the most and it comprises signs, typography, films, graphic designs, and countless other examples.
Q3: Explain three data collection methods. Include at least one manual method, as well as one method that use technology and one method that use technology services.
- Manual method-Face-to-face interviews
This method of data collection is face-to-face interviews which are structured and directed by trained interviewers who prefer on using standardized interview procedures and a proper set of standardized responses used for recording interviewee’s responses. Face-to-face interviews are conducted in business-to-business relations, at capture sites related to business-related activities. According to Ducan and Fiske, 2015 the main advantage of face-to-face interviews is the capability in controlling interactions, making sure that the targeted participants are the respondent; ask complex questions, and using proper mechanisms. The disadvantage of face-to-face interviews is associated with the cost of training company interviewers and providing them with the proper field also this method requires a lot of time in conducting the interview.
- One method that uses a technology-survey tool
It is not so surprising that technology is part of the day-to-day activity of every organization. Technology survey tools refer to a collection of information by use of software tools, online services, and technical skills which is relevant, etc as cited by Curran, (2016). A technology survey is conducted to get information on how much the targeted audience knows about the technology and its usage. It is no surprise that digitalization has covered every sector in the industry and also every individual. There are so many companies, businesses, and education sectors that are turning themselves into technology-oriented companies and businesses, for a few years. Further, the COVID-19 pandemic has forced everyone to adopt technology which is further known as the new normal, where the main focus was on adopting technologies in the daily life of every individual as well the business. All the business and education system has adopted technologies as part of their regular work.
A capability for securing details and behaviour of the enterprise’s objective, which includes needs, processes, software libraries, data, policies, projects and personnel, with the ability to support software development as well as the operations management of the company. The single viewpoint of description for all system resources, it should consider stimulating both program and installation of management productivity. As cited by Li, Vedula, Hadar, Parkin, Lau, and Dickersin, (2015). A system repository includes outline definitions, performance goals, and tuning parameters, but an application repository includes definitions related to data.
Q4: Explain three data analysis methods. Include at least one manual method, as well as one method that use technology and one method
That uses technology services.
- Manual data analysis
Manual data analysis is the best data collection method, and it is also most commonly used by all organizations and companies. This manual data analysis method includes the following steps:
- Preparing and organizing data – these steps of data analysis include printing out transcripts, gathering notes, documents and other material requires for analysis. Marking all the resources, any kind of demographic that is collected, or any kind of information which is helpful in the analysis of data (as cited by Pallant, 2020).
- Review and explore the data – This step requires reading data, maybe numerous times, to get information about what it contains. It is necessary to keep notes about opinions, ideas, or any queries.
- Create initial codes – by using various highlighters, margin notes, concept maps, or using sticky notes for remembering important information or anything which helps to connect with data. Considering the attached document that further validates how to highlight important keywords and phrases and also helps in making notes in the margins to categorize the data collected.
- Presenting themes in an organized manner - Considering the audience, the main objective of the study, and what kind of content is required to be comprised to present the collected data.
Coding is the procedure of organizing and classifying qualitative data to recognize various themes and relationships. When a customer gives feedback in coding, it is necessary to assign a label to a particular word or phrase which represents an important theme in response to each. These labels can be in a form of a word, phrase, or numerical form, using words and short phrases is recommended because they are very easy to remember and also easy in organising as suggested by Stuckey, (2015). The coding of qualitative research in finding mutual themes is a part of thematic analysis. Thematic analysis quotes from the manuscript by evaluating each word and sentence forming. Coding qualitative data helps in making quite simple in interpreting feedback. And also providing codes to phrases in each reply to helps in capturing the reason behind capturing what response is about which, and all this in return helps in making better analysis and concluding the results of the complete survey. There is various researchers who use coding and other qualitative data analysis process to make a data-driven decision which is based on customers' feedback.
- Survey Monkey
Survey monkey refers to a cloud-based tool which helps the user in creating, sending, and analyzing surveys. Users can mail survey respondents and also have the facility to show them on their websites and other social media platforms to upsurge answer rates. Operators have the facility to customer satisfaction studies to collect feedback on the products and they can also opt for sending employees appointment surveys for understanding employee satisfaction levels in the company. According to Young, (2015) Survey Monkey provides users to reduce data business by using several questions, pages, blocks, and command randomization. It also provides operators with several questions which include videos, matrix, A/B testing, slider and also ranking of questions.
- Data collection
The process of collecting and examining the actual data from different sources to collect the answer to problems related to research, various trends, etc., to assess all possible results is called Data Collection. Data is a different form of information that is altered in a certain way. During the collection of data, the researchers need to identify the various data types, sources of data, and methods used. There are several data collection methods qualitative, quantitative,
Q5: Explain legal requirements that apply to the handling and storing of data when conducting research.
Research on Privacy Act 1988
The research privacy act 1988 also known as the privacy act which was announced to protect and promote the security and privacy of an individual and also to keep an eye on how the Australian Government organization handles private information. Australian government organisations have a yearly turnover of $3 million (as cited by Otlowski, 2015). The act comprises 13 Australian privacy principles (APPs), which applies to some of the private sectors of organization and also to Australian government agencies. The act controls the components of the privacy of consumers' recognition broadcasting system, file numbers, and also medical research. The privacy area includes the following:
- Checking on whether the privacy act is effective in protecting personal information and also in providing a proportionate framework for promoting privacy practices.
- Straight rights of action of an individual to force privacy responsibilities under the act.
Q6. Explain legal requirements that apply to the privacy of data when conducting research
Research on Privacy Act 1988, the Australian Privacy Principles
The Australian Privacy Principles (APPs) is the keystone of privacy protection under the Privacy Act 1988 also known as the Privacy Act. These applicable to every organization Australian Privacy Principles administer standards, rights, and obligation around:
- an organization’s governance and responsibility
- the rights of person to admissibility their information
- honesty and alteration of personal information
- the gathering, using, and revelation of personal information
The Australian Privacy Principles are based on law. They provide organization flexibility to alter their personal information and also help in management practices of their business models and the miscellaneous requirements of individuals (as cited by Othman and Samah, 2022). They are technology impartial, which further permits them to adopt changes in technology. A breach of the Australian Privacy Principle is an 'interfering with the privacy of an individual which can lead to legal actions and consequences.
Q7. Explain legal requirements that apply to freedom of information when conducting research.
Research on the Freedom of Information Act
The act needs to identify certain documents which may not be able to see known as exempt documents. These documents are what the parliaments believe should be kept confidential to protect the importance of public interest or the business affairs of others. According to Mueller and Engewald, 2018 If the ARC decides not to provide any kind of information, it must identify the documents with held, give a written reason for the decision, and also advise on the right of appeal. In most cases, FOI requests are refused where it leads to an unreasonable disclosure of others' information.
Q8. Explain the key steps in the applied research process that may be referred to in policies, procedures, and guidelines relating to applied research
- Select, define, and gain approval – selection of particular research policies, procedures, and guidelines is a very important step in the applied research process. This step in the process involves defining the problem and selecting the cause of the problem and gaining approval from higher authority to work on the particular problem.
- Review existing information –after identifying the problem the next step in the process is to review the information available or any kind of research already done on similar issues needs to be considered (as cited by Kumar, 2018).
- Plan research – after gathering all the necessary information now it is time to implement the plan for the research. The research plan is the road map for the entire study, as this plan includes all decisions regarding the objectives and goals.
- Data analysis – it refers is to analyse the data which is collected from primary as well as secondary sources. The data analysis is a very important step of applied research, in this, all the data is properly evaluated according to the needs and requirements.
- Draw practical recommendations – drawing the practical recommendation is the final step of the research as it shows the results of all the planning and evaluation, whether are they perfect for the achievement of objectives or not.
Q9.Describe three presentation techniques that could be used for applied research.
- Visual presentation
The visual presentation focuses on communicating and sharing necessary information in a database visually to experts for detailed evaluation. The visual presentation emphasizes the related information out of all the data. According to Lee, Riche, Isenberg, and Carpendale, 2015 this is very important meanwhile presentations are frequently comprehended on print media, which permits only small interaction. For presentation, the facts which are to be presented are fixed, and the choices of the presentation techniques are subject to the user. The main aim is to professionally and effectively communicate the outcome of an analysis
Research is the cautious consideration of a study that is related to a specific concern in using scientific methods. An American sociologist mentioned that research is a methodical review to describe, predict, explain, and regulate the experimental phenomenon. Research is mainly of two methods, inductive and deductive methods. Research is conducted for:
- Identify possible and new customers
- Understand the existing needs of customers
- Setting pragmatic goals
- Developing productive marketing strategies
- Addressing business goals and challenges
- Planning on putting together a business expansion plan
- Identify business opportunities
- Applying researched reports on the conference
Conference Reports is an agreement on legislation that is negotiated between the members via conference committees. It is then printed and submitted to each member for further deliberation like approval or disapproval of the agreement. A research report at a conference is a combination of a written document as well as an oral presentation as cited by Savery, (2015). This report is asked to be transmitted into copy paper to an observer before presenting at the conference. As an outcome of that report should follow the agreements of academic papers and oral presentations.
Q10. Describe two ways of reporting on research.
- Journals - A research journal refers to a periodical that includes articles written by several experts in a specific field of study who further report the outcome of research in a particular area. This way of reporting a research guide permits some important tips and tricks to help differentiate scholarly journals from other periodicals. This way of reporting on research provides results of research in the fields of study.
- Conference – reporting on research could also be done by conference, the conference is known as the meeting of various people to discuss a particular topic or research. It is not as same as the conventions, which are typically bigger and consist of representatives who are representative of various groups.
- Newspaper or magazine – these are also the best way of reporting on the research, as these two are the most common platform of reporting as several users prefer newspapers or magazines. Newspaper is part of every household in the world so it is considered the best option for reporting research.
- Briefing report – it is a clear and concise document that summarizes every issue and also identifies important pieces of information like problems that are needed to be addressed and the financial implications. The specialty of this report is that it offers recommendations on how to address the issues.
Q11. Explain the concept of research ethics
- Ethical conduct – ethical conduct in research implies good ethics or adherence to ethical standards. In undertaking research, it is very important to undertake certain ethical principles which are used as the framework to guide the research with help of the research process and its succeeding use. It is very important to protect the dignity, rights, and also welfare of research participants (as cited by Roth and Von Unger, 2018). Every research includes reviewing by the ethics committee to make sure that the proper and appropriate ethical standards are being practiced in the research.
- Clear, Transparent, Appropriate
- And Effective Procedures–the process and methods used in the research need to be clear, transparent, and appropriate to the research topic.
- Confidentiality of information – protecting confidential information, personnel records include the following important information such as:
- Objectives of report
- Purpose of report
- Purpose and procedure of the research
- Role in research
- Rights of refusing
- Methods that will be used to protect information
- Freedom of not answering the questions.
- No conflicts – for making sure that there are no conflicts, it is very important to make sure that there is honesty and sincerity in the research. Making sure that every team member working on the research is working smoothly and there are no conflicts.
Q12. Review the following Code of Conduct and summarise in your own words the key principles of responsible research
The 2018 Code is a principle-based article that enunciates the comprehensive principles, authority, and obligations which strengthen the manner of research. Established by the National Health and Medical Research Council, Universities Australia, the Australian Research Council, the 2018 Code has comprehensive significance for overall research disciplines. Observance of the Code is a precondition for the receiving of funds by the National Health and Medical Research Council. The Code required being read along with the Director to Investigating Possible Breaches of the Australian Code for the Accountable Conduct of Research, 2018. This further guides the model procedure for institutions to utilize in managing and investigating possible breaches of the 2018 Code. The 2018 Code is reinforced on particular topics to inspire proper research conduct.
Q13.Outline three examples of applied research tools and how they are applied during research
- Decision rule: decision rule shows how the statistics calculated, parameters of interest, and also signifies how to use the test statistic for selecting hypotheses regarding the data. The decision rule shows the circumstances under which hypothesis null is declined or rejected. The null hypothesis is a backup default hypothesis it is naturally the commonly recognized idea which the research is focused at disproving.
- Test Statistics: A test statistic is used in statistical hypothesis testing. A hypothesis test is signifying quantities which respect to of test statistics, which is further measured a numerical summary of a data that decreases the data to one value which could be be further used in performing the hypothesis.
- Causation: causation also refers as causality it includes the capacity of one variable to be influences another variable. The first variable may bring the other one into presence or might cause the occurrence of the flexible to fluctuate.
- Association: measurement of the association in-between variables is quite relevant for examining causality, which is in return, is known as scientific research. An association between variables do not essentially suggest that a causal relationship and the research strategy of the study focused at investigating an association needs and requirements to be carefully measured for the study to gain valid information.
Q14. Give three examples of applied research methods and outline how they are applied during research.
- Desk research: desk research is research which is grounded on the material which is available in research reports and also in same documents that are accessible in the various research places like libraries, and websites, all these data obtained from surveys already carried put, etc. these data is very useful for applied research as it helps in finding the relevant data which is required for conducting research. Some organizations also secure data which could be utilize for research purposes.
- Observation: observational research is a technique that observes contributors and phenomena in all-natural settings. This helps researchers to look into subject matters that make choices and respond to situations in their natural setting as different to structured settings which are done in places like research labs and focus groups.
- Surveys: survey research is well-defined as the procedure of conducting research by using surveys used for applied research that the researchers direct to survey respondents. The data collected which is collected from surveys is then appropriately and statistically analysed to conclude a meaningful research conclusion and successful outcomes.
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