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Introduction : Biomedical Engineering

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Background and aims

Applying biomedical engineering (BME) is a particular medical problem that helps support patients in overcoming their health issues. "Spinal cord tissue engineering" is mainly applied to repair the spinal cord and support to cover SCI ("spinal cord injury") issues. As per the report, it is observed that soft gel-like material has been penetrating the patient's spinal cord, which is mainly facing traumatic injury related to their spinal cord. The identified medical problem that can be solved through "Spinal cord tissue engineering" is SCI ("spinal cord injury").

Aim

The primary aim of this research is to investigate an advanced technology that supports improving neurological problems, more specifically, spinal cord issues. It is notifying that, through this type of biomedical engineering, 10% of people become positively benefitted mostly in their muscle function in $3.7 billion in 2020 (Wheeler, 2022).

The above image estimates that 33% of people in Australia face severe injury with SCI. In the case of spinal cord tissue engineering, a bridge has been formed, which is facilitated for regenerating and healing the damaged neural circuitry. In this processes soft get has been injected with the help of a "vision-equipped surgical robot". Drugs have been designed for updating nerve fibers and tissues. The gap in this research is the lack of certain information related to advanced materials that are required in the biomedical engineering of spinal cord tissue. Steam cell therapy proper medication is an identified innovative solution that can help overcome SCI instead of biomedical engineering of spinal cord tissue.

Review of literature

Application of 3D bio-printing to over SCI

SCI is referred to as a major issue in CNS (“central nervous system”) where the nerve connected with different parts of the body and brain are being damaged. This injury leads to paralysis and sensory loss. According to Bedir et al. (2020), "3D bio-printed collagen" is a recommended strategy that helps to improve axonal regeneration of the spinal cord and is effective for the functional discovery of this. The article highlight that this "3D-printed scaffold" measure the lesion geometries and the dimension of the human spinal cord. In this case, NPCs need to be inserted within “3D-printed scaffolds" that are effective for axon regeneration. This process supports the formation of neural relays, which helps repair the damaged synaptic conduction and improve function. In the same way, Lu et al. (2022), “3D bioprinting scaffold" is an advanced method for generating complex microstructures which construct geometrics anatomically and supports the spatial ordination of "neural stem cells". Instead of implementing of 3D printing technology, bio-inks are also an established method to amend SCI. In the case of the placation of 3D bioprinting, the "Stereolithography" method is a costly and slow process; moreover, in the case of curing, treatment and reaction of kinetics are majorly complex.

Application of biomaterials for tissue engineering

The use of bio-medical is an evaluation process of tissue engineering of the spinal cord, which is majorly applicable for the treatment of the spinal cord. As referred to by Li et al. (2022), in the case of completed transactions, the biomedical application is a commonly used treatment in all the models. After the injury, an intermediate intervention has been conducted to develop the synthetic and natural biomaterials in the variant morphological body. This type of treatment in the case of tissue engineering includes hydrogel, scaffold and particles. Experimental parameters are considered for modifying the function of biomedical, which are applied in the contrast of biomolecules and cells. These are effective in generating a permissive environment for repairing spinal cord injury. The summation of biomolecules is effective for reproducing extracellular matrix (ECM) to transplantation of supplement cells is a considerable approach for repairing the spinal cord. In the same way, as poine3d by Wiseman et al. (2021), SAP (" self-assembling peptide ") and ECM are the strategies for the generation of nano molecules. The primary aim of this article is to explore the significance of transplantation of MPC, which enhances supporting scaffold through "Fmoc-DIKVAV hydrogel". An effective design for delivering standard biomaterials cues on the point of the inflammatory response, which approves astrocyte reactivity.

Approaches to recover SCI through tissue engineering

SCI causes loss of irreversible tissue, which includes nerve tracks, the grey matter of neurones and which matter of oligodendrocytes. As opined by Lai et al. (2019), MRI is an advanced technique for identifying the continuity of the spinal cord in, specifically the injury site. FA (" measurement of fractional anisotropy"), ADC (" apparent diffusion coefficient") and Fiber tractography are derived from MRI to understand the continuity of the nerve fibre bundle. MRI potential recording showed that NSC with SCI canines is derived from transplantation of NN tissue, which is co-ordinate for locomotion. Engineering technology especially stems cell therapy offers a therapeutic strategy mostly for repairing spinal cord tissue. Glia and neurones are obtained from NSCs (" neural stem cells"), which are ineffective in replacing the glia and neurones cells. In a similar way, Guo et al. (2021) stem cell therapy is facilitated for functional recovery of the spinal cord through neuro regenerative mechanisms and recreation of transacted axons. This is helpful for the indemnification of lost tissue through cell replacement.

Project innovation

Stem cell therapy is the identified solution as the stem cell is helpful for regenerating and protecting the damaged spinal cord via immunomodulation, neuroprotection and axon sprouting. Myelin regeneration and the formation of neural relays are considered effective mechanisms for repairing SCI. This approach has large therapeutic efficiency, mostly in corneal transplants and haematological malignancies. SCT (“Stem cell therapy”) for repairing spinal cord tissue leads to inappropriate migration, tumour formation adverse effects of secondary injury and infection. According to Shang et al. (2022), 2% of patients with SCI completely recover with stem cell therapy as it helps to regulate the number of damaged tissues. Stem cell therapy includes NSCs (“neural stem cells ") and HSCs ("hematopoietic stem cells ") for repairing SCI. This type of innovative solution delivers support micro environmentally to the damaged spinal cord via enhancing vascularisation, inflammatory response moderately and regulation of cystic change. More than 250,000 people globally experience problems from spinal cord injury, and it requires a $9 million cost in Australia. As per the researcher's experience, the development of stem cell therapy delivers support to acquiring spinal cord and brain injury. As referred to by Zhang et al. (2019), stem cell therapy is highly potential for approaches to spinal cord tissue engineering, and it is mainly used for promoting functional recovery and repairing the loss of spinal cord tissue.

This "stem cell therapy" is an innovative solution to repair damaged stem tissue as it acts in an advanced and promising way to develop the treatment. The rationale of the innovative solution is that it delivers support in the regeneration of nerve tissue, and helps to secret multiple advanced factors which prohibit further damage to spinal tissue. Additionally, this approach helps to reserve glial and neuron cell differentiation which delivers trophic support. However, the effectiveness of SCT can be inaccurate in case of wrong imprecisions. Stem cell therapy is an advance and promising treatment for the patient who suffers from SCI as it has reactivity benefits and helps to target multiple factors. As referred to by Huang et al. (2021), in the case of SCI, the effect of stem cell therapy (NPCs and NSCs) are the development of cell proliferation, enhanced inflammatory response, and increased neuroprotective cytokines and myelination. SCT for SCI includes “umbilical mesenchymal “, “bone marrow mesenchymal”,” neural progenitor cells”, “adipose-derived mesenchymal “, and embryonic and neural stem cells. In human trials, these cells are targets for SCI pathology to show nutritional support, immunomodulation mechanisms and therapeutic effect for the replacement of spinal cord cells. 

Project Design

Outline of an experimental approach

Analysis

Solution based on test

Three phases of the clinical trial express the therapeutic effects. This is related to the transplantation of stem cells as the homing capacity is not equal to chronic SCI.

In the case of the preclinical trial of stem cell therapy, patients get autologous transplants. In the case of the early stage of Clinical trial, patients (who suffer in the chronic stage) are used as control.

In the case of the animal model, pre-clinical trials are applied in the acute phase (Yamazaki et al., 2020).

A clinical trial of stem cell therapy is important for discussing the role of this therapy related to the lack of adipose tissue.

An innovative approach for repairing damaged spinal cord tissue has currently evolved through the prevalence of cellular (stem cell) therapy. MSCs are one of the variants of SCT, which has the efficiency of regenerating the bone marrow (Mukhamedshina et al. 2019). In the acute phase, researchers have been trnsplanted multiple tissues by aligning scaffold with the spinal cord. However in the case of the sub-acute phase, here the stem cell cat differently rather than a clinical trial.

hPSC therapy had been conducted to a patient with SCI in 2010 in Geron Corporation. The result had been conducted through MRI. The evaluation of phase I and II states that the effect of AST-OPC1 delivers prominent treatment of regenerative tissue and enhencing the mechanism of repairing tissue (Hoang et al. 2022). In the MSCs phase, stem cell therapy deliverability for functional recovery of neural cells.

Project outcomes and benefits

Stem cell therapy is promisingly effective to recover devastating injuries of the spinal cord. This innovative approach is helpful for increasing the quality of life who suffers from SCI as it helps for reducing the economic burden and psychological support.

The above image estimates the scheme of engineering technology for repairing SCI within the human body. In another way, the researcher would understand the reason and occurrence of the disease. This project is highly beneficial for the readers as it highlights multiple approaches to recovering SCI such as 3D printing scaffold, MRI, and Biomolecules. According to Guo et al. (2021), SCT has been emerging as an attractive and existing treatment to regenerate the spinal cord tissue. Additionally, it estimates the numerical value of people in Australia who suffer from SCI. Biomedical tissue engineering is an outbound process against potential alternatives by supporting a contemporary solution. Moreover, this project has highlighted the recombinant factors along with scaffolding stem cells with chemokines and cytokines to develop and regenerate organs. This project supports to the development of knowledge on algorithmic treatment to develop the abilities of the patient in overcoming devastating injuries.

Reference

Bedir, T., Ulag, S., Ustundag, C.B. and Gunduz, O., 2020. 3D bioprinting applications in neural tissue engineering for spinal cord injury repair. Materials Science and Engineering: C110, p.110741.

Guo, S., Redenski, I. and Levenberg, S., 2021. Spinal Cord Repair: From Cells and Tissue Engineering to Extracellular Vesicles. Cells10(8), p.1872.

Hoang, D.M., Pham, P.T., Bach, T.Q. et al. (2022). Stem cell-based therapy for human diseases. Sig Transduct Target Ther 7, 272

Huang, L., Fu, C., Xiong, F., He, C. and Wei, Q., 2021. Stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury. Cell Transplantation30, p.0963689721989266.

Lai, B.Q., Che, M.T., Feng, B., Bai, Y.R., Li, G., Ma, Y.H., Wang, L.J., Huang, M.Y., Wang, Y.Q., Jiang, B. and Ding, Y., 2019. Tissue?Engineered Neural Network Graft Relays Excitatory Signal in the Completely Transected Canine Spinal Cord. Advanced science6(22), p.1901240.

Li, J.J., Liu, H., Zhu, Y., Yan, L., Liu, R., Wang, G., Wang, B. and Zhao, B., 2022. Animal models for treating spinal cord injury using biomaterials-based tissue engineering strategies. Tissue Engineering Part B: Reviews28(1), pp.79-100.

Lu, D., Yang, Y., Zhang, P., Ma, Z., Li, W., Song, Y., Feng, H., Yu, W., Ren, F., Li, T. and Zeng, H., 2022. Development and Application of Three-Dimensional Bioprinting Scaffold in the Repair of Spinal Cord Injury. Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, pp.1-15.

Mukhamedshina, Y., Shulman, I., Ogurcov, S., Kostennikov, A., Zakirova, E., Akhmetzyanova, E., Rogozhin, A., Masgutova, G., James, V., Masgutov, R. and Lavrov, I., 2019. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for spinal cord contusion: a comparative study on small and large animal models. Biomolecules9(12), p.811.

Shang, Z., Wang, M., Zhang, B., Wang, X. and Wanyan, P., 2022. Clinical translation of stem cell therapy for spinal cord injury still premature: results from a single-arm meta-analysis based on 62 clinical trials. BMC medicine20(1), pp.1-19.

Wiseman, T.M., Baron-Heeris, D., Houwers, I.G., Keenan, R., Williams, R.J., Nisbet, D.R., Harvey, A.R. and Hodgetts, S.I., 2021. Peptide hydrogel scaffold for mesenchymal precursor cells implanted to injured adult rat spinal cord. Tissue Engineering Part A27(15-16), pp.993-1007.

Yamazaki, K., Kawabori, M., Seki, T. and Houkin, K., 2020. Clinical trials of stem cell treatment for spinal cord injury. International Journal of Molecular Sciences21(11), p.3994.

Zhang, Q., Shi, B., Ding, J., Yan, L., Thawani, J.P., Fu, C. and Chen, X., 2019. Polymer scaffolds facilitate spinal cord injury repair. Acta biomaterialia88, pp.57-77.

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