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Introduction - Advanced Materials And Manufacturing Assignment
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The process of additive layer manufacturing (ALM) can be defined in removing the excess material in gaining the desired shape. In viewing the computer control, the three dimensional are made with the various successive layers. In the other side "5-axis machining process", the 5-axis can be referred to the specific number of directions in which the cutting tools can move. The ALM process application can be found in the making of casting patterns and the prototypes through which the casting patterns act as functional parts. Apart from these multiple ceramic and metal patterns can be made with this. Through tooling and metal part repairing the prototypes can also be made. In viewing of the casting models, multiple tooling prototypes and shell casting can be done. Therefore the operating principles are laid in fabricated models through sintering, fusing and polymerization of the materials. The ALM layers are made by slicing of "CAD data". Through the rapid prototyping techniques, the process of layer manufacturing can be discussed.
The thickness of the range layer varies between "10-200 µm". Finding the application of the 5-axis machining process has been found in the higher technological industries like aircraft. Apart from this in the automotive industries also this has a broader range of applications. The "multi-axis HSC technology" can also be used in the die and mould manufacturing process. In bearing a considerable role, using this technology, the machine can quickly achieve the "spindle speed" to the "50,000 rpm" acquiring the correct holding system.
This machining's operating principles offer three types of "linear axis" and two other "rotational axis". The cutting tool moves across the axes of X, Y and Z and it can rotate A and B axes. Recent development has brought several dedicated softwares for the execution of the 5-axis machining. One of the best preferable softwares Autodesk Powermill, with which designing and execution can be done. So, it is evident that in 5-axis machining and additive layer manufacturing is the future technology.
Through the proper design and the methodological approach, the manifold can be designed, and it can be manufactured through the additive layer manufacturing process such as 3D printing and CNC machining (Calleja et al., 2017). There are various types of strategic approaches that can be implemented to the design process and manufacturing processes.
The actual purpose of this project is the following:
- To determine as well as investigate the feasibility and reliability through the technique of additive layer manufacturing process.
- Designing of the manifolds through CAD design.
- To produce efficient valve manifolds.
- Manufacturing of the manifolds via ALM process & 5-axis manufacturing process.
- Understanding of the 3D printing process and CNC machining process.
2.2 Strategic Approach
By creating the proper strategic approach, the manifolds will tolerate the optimal flow at the least pressure drop (Tunc, and Budak, 2019). It also tolerates the mean velocity at the maximum level and less amount of energy losses for the hydraulic actuator.
- Investigation of Failure Modes
Different types of failures can be generated due to outrageous temperatures for the different amplitudes and the angles for which there are basic requirements of the withstands for the components. The proper reason for the screw-up's will be the "dynamic excitation" for the subsystem related to fumes if the materials are not properly interrelated with the manifolds' actual components. The main problem is created regarding a complex braking system and the process for spillage.
- Understanding of Failures
Failure can be understood by the proper guidance of any machines that fall under the failure. The advancement enhancement with the secondary structure seems to deal with the several engineering applications involved with the primary functions of using design practices such as military and civilian fields. The great advantages which seem about the shortage are used since the applications of limited critical aspects. Failure deteriorates with the technical advancements of data needed in the defects and damage of conventional materials.
- Leakage Problem
While joining or connecting two pipes, the results can be appreciated with the leaking of any pipes. It tends to be clear about the generic idea, which seems with the projected amount about the leaking pipes that create major havoc in the entire system (Calleja et al., 2016). Poor water quality would make the wrapped quality even more adhesive and invasive in black mould. The flooding system tends to believe with the ways to create with the leaky pipes, which seems to damage the whole housing system that would like to create, costing a fortune.
- "HCF” or "High Cycle Fatigue”
The High Cycle Fatigue relates with the shield formed by the village to deal with the pipes beneath that deal with the cities, towns, and villages. The fatigue which has been tending to deal with the leakage of emerging conventional duty increases the emphasis of the changing professional issues. The cracking to lead about the contact tends to clear about the chances to deal with the necessary components.
The advanced materials and manufacturing processes that deal with the university develop in developing with the Institute of Research Excellence. The development of any research institute has been made by the material to deal with the test and development. In the structural materials which have been processed in about next-generation (Hsieh, and Chu, 2017). The combination tends to make use of advanced processing technologies. The Advanced Manufacturing and Material processing that is required in the cutting edge technologies. Thus, the material plays with technological advancement, which requires dealing with the electronic world in structural engineering and mechanical engineering. The materials to be produced are used to be presented in the market and regards to the model development. The gigantic structure that produces in regards to the material
Figure 1: 3D metal droplet in printing development and advanced materials
The commercial process in the advanced development involves the direct metal that produces the wire or powder deposition, which tends with the power-based fusion, which details with the technologies. This has been used in the laser beam procession, which deals with the laser and electron beam that have been used to produce in melting with the proliferated over the past decade, the development which deals with the precision additive manufacturing applications. The utilizing components deal with the standard of formation of the exact condition required to deal with the additive manufactured microstructures required in the production. Discussions dealing with the paradigm usually invoke or about the comparisons to deal between traditional subtractive and manufacturing additive data (Annoni, et al., 2019). The power supply required by the powder spray deals with the weld-metal alloy to overlay the convection of technology. The worn surfaces that deal with surface degradation to deal with the surface to design the surface layer modification using the hardening of the electron or laser beam. The utilized metal relates to stroke in the metal wire in the feedstock melted layer, the similar process that has been required in the feed wire to create a vacuum with the developed beam freeform fabrication.
Figure 2: Advanced design for manufacturing
The "Advanced Engineering Materials", which have high value-added materials that would invariably perform that, deals with the better and conventional materials that would require yielding of any materials. This has been used to design with the example for better-life performance. The relevant model hampers with the processing details about the net shape technologies. The market is asking to calculate the potentially specialized matter in a limited way. The capital investment tends with the manufacturing items that deal with the establishment of reproducing and production capability. The unique who tends to deal with the manufacturing and processing challenges formed by the opportunities about AEMs. State of the art regarding the processing which has been used to deal with the goals of design for manufacturing the compatibility of the model, the focus of the advanced materials that have been dealt with the normal scope of manufacturing to deal with introducing the barriers to optimization. The research materials that tend to develop with the scientific approach that deals with the need for expansion have been revised with educational programmes. Engineering proposals have been made to derive by the methods to derive with advanced methods and manufacturing objectives. The application data tends to calibrate with the capabilities required to consider the capabilities of the AEMs. The scale of art that would require the structure and development and manufacturing data would comprise multiphase alloys.
4.0 ALM Manufacture
Additive Layer Manufacturing's technology is the process of material addition over another, unlike the subtractive method in which the material is being reached at the desired shape. During the days of early development, the main use of 3D printing was mainly rapid prototyping, but soon researchers understood the potential of this technology as future technology and began developing the technology of additive layer manufacturing. The use of the technology eloped from the avionics industry to automobile because this technology helped construct existing components and made those much more efficient than before since this technology works on intricate detailing that helped it become much more efficient.
Though additive layer manufacturing promises technology its speed, repeatability, and material flexible; it has been long challenged by the technology of rapid prototyping. Some applications are:
- Experimental and visual tool in design (prototyping) - 3D printing is considered rapid prototyping. And this technology has been with the advent of the development of modern science development. This technology can be used for the development of the manufacture of the concept design and architectural drawing since detailing of any component of this technology is the main concern of this technology, so the construct of concept products are much easier and much more detailed with ease.
- Manufacture of Industrial Tools ( Rapid Casting) - By the method of the conventional process of manufacturing of tools, the process of elimination is used. From a material, the unwanted material is trimmed off to make the desired product. But in rapid prototyping in a tankful of material, a mould is inserted into the tank, and then it is taken off the tank. And then it is exposed with ultraviolet light which hardens each layer. But one of the disadvantages of this process of technology is that it is not as cheap as Fused Deposition Modelling but is more expensive than that. It is mainly due to the involvement of the electromagnetic light, which is being used to harden the material and also the market price of the material used is also expensive. Because in the technology of rapid casting, there are a few choices of material selection that are more economical than fused deposition modelling. Also, it is not recommended to use a low-resolution prototype because a low-resolution prototype may not create an intricately detailed product, and there may be some undefined part. So to avoid this type of mechanical hazards, it is recommended to use high-resolution prototypes which can create an intrinsically detailed prototype.
- Create highly customized products - The types of products which require intricate detailing will be best suited with the technology of 3D printing. Though this technology requires a lot of time for its production, its detailing is much more. The modern industry of avionics has been immensely benefited by this technology. It has been a matter of concern for the avionics industry to reduce its self-weight, but with the conventional technology it was nearly impossible to achieve, but with the advent of additive manufacturing, modern avionics can create detailed components with minimum error as at minimum amount of self-we4ight. But along with this, one of the major disadvantages is that the choice of material selection is less and also the production timing is also more.
- Production of nano-products - Modern technology is growing steadily towards nano-technology. Especially to the industry of avionics, using this technology, the self-weight of the aircraft can be reduced. Nano-technology involves the production of the components at a very small size, and it is very difficult for the production of the components. This can be achieved with the help of additive manufacturing.
Future applications that are in the stage development are:
- Production of human organs and tissues
- Construction of Civil Structures
- Manufacture of clothes
- Food confection
5.0 5Axis Manufacturing
5-axes machining provides the utility to work with three plus two axes of machining. In this technology, three axes are being dedicated to moving horizontally, and two-axis are being to move vertically. Online 3 -axis machining system where the tools cannot be manufactured in a single setup. Because the technology lacks the process of rotation, and the component needs to remount when the component needs to be turned. But this drawback can be resolved with the technology from 5-axis machining.
Figure 3: 5-axis Machinery over 3-Axis Machinery
In this technology, machining work is done in five axial coordinates. The main advantage of this concept is that the component need not be mounted repeatedly, but the component can be machined by rotating the component. This technology made 3D printing more user friendly and many industries benefited like the aviation industry and automobile industry, where a lot of heavy mechanized components are required for construction with intrinsic detailing. Quality is the main factor of concern in this industry, thus making the technology quite apt for their use and their purposes of work. Though it requires more time than the conventional machining work, this technology made the breakthrough in its detailing work and also to the internal work. In internal work, this technology is capable of carving into any component internally, which makes it much more usable and also to the nano-technology sector. In this sector, it is very difficult to develop any component conventionally, but this technology solved the problem. It can machine any small component into any desired design. This made the technology best suited for the avionics industry where self-weight needed to be reduced by not compromising with the features of the aircraft. So nano-technology is suitable for its working progress. Nano-machinery is used extensively in the aircraft parts to reduce its weight and also to decrease the size of its engine. This will help in reducing fuel consumption, which will, on the other hand, reduce the emission of carbon-dioxide emission. So, being 5-axis machining is one of the widely used technologies that made it a future possible technology, especially in the sector of manufacturing and production.
6.1 evolution overview
In the growing age of development, additive manufacturing becomes the renaissance over the other conventional techniques. When it comes to developing complex geometries, then additive manufacturing is able to design more complex designs with respect to technological development. The evaluation has taken place from the development of the three-dimensional technology, and at present, the five-axis development has been developed which provide better facing to the designs. Furthermore, when it comes to the development of complex models, the ALM provides complementary benefits to the users as the developer is able to find out the defects by analyzing layer after layer. Thus it can be said that the ALM provides more stable and structural benefits to the industries while making geometrically complicated designs.
6.2 use of matrices
In the aircraft fuel manifold design the matrix Mille-meter is chosen by the manufacturing team. The reason behind the chosen matrices is a detailed study of the manifold design. The 5-axis manufacturing process assists one setup for the full work piece. So to help with the 5-axis manufacturing process, the manufacturing team chose millimeter as a design matrix. In the detail design study, the 5-axis machining process assists in perfecting cutting of manifold design. On the other hand, through the additive layer, manufacturing 3D printing is worked lay by layer. So also in this part of the manifold design, the mille meteor matrix is useful to detail study of 3D printing. Also, in the aerospace manifold designing the mm matrix reduces risk and maintains the quality of the manufactured product.
The additive manufacturing technology is adopted by many industries and performs well, but when it comes to making high scale products and products with large volume, then it becomes vulnerable. Therefore this technology is not widely spread over all the industries. The challenges that make the process vulnerable can be termed as-
- Limitation of size
All the parts are made of polymers and thus not able to produce large scale products. The main use of ALM is within the aircraft industries, and it is not possible to build large components due to its incapability.
- Consistent quality
As the AML provides the layer to layer observation; thus, it has been seen that the process is not able to provide consistent quality at the bottom plane. The quality differs from time to time and therefore resists its adaptability in a huge range.
- Limitation of flexibility
No doubt there are ALM supports lots of material choices, but when it comes to the investment, then it takes too much capital compared to other conventional methods.
6.4 advantage and disadvantages
- The critical advantage that the ALM provides is it helps to develop complicated models without using any extra tools.
- It helps to reduce the extra material that causes structural deformations and hence makes the process more effective.
- All the process can be done only by providing simple codes, and thus there is no need for manual drawing, and therefore it is more stable than any other conventional milling processes.
- Due to its flexibility, it can produce the products faster and hence allows the developer to make necessary changes to the entire model.
- Here in this process, there are so many materials available, and therefore the developer is able to mix different materials to build several products.
- Layer to player modification is possible in this process, and therefore it allows the developers to look forward to the design deformation.
- Compared to any other conventional method of engraving additive manufacturing is more effective in terms of finishing.
- The process of engraving is modifying day by day, and therefore old finds are getting obsolete, which takes more time and money.
- The equipment used is complicated and needs high maintenance. Thus the maintenance cost is high.
- Compared to sand molding, this technology is not able to provide the working space and therefore making the ALM vulnerable.
- When it comes to the bottom line finish, then it is not able to provide the smooth finish to the surface, and therefore it makes the surface finish rough.
- Processing time is too slow to generate models faster.
From the above topic, it has been concluded that the advanced material of the topic has been related to the tasks of AutoCAD and printing materials. The study that evolves with science and engineering has faithful, remarkable contrasts. The applications and predictions would relate to clear with the managerial way of troubling development, which seems to deal with the contrast of the light. The growing opportunities of any field tend to develop with the formal approach shortage of field personnel in educated life. The exploitation of raw materials in the field of challenging approach, the conduction of any objectives in regards to the manufacturing of any axis which tends to develop with the assessment.
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