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Introduction : Programme Leadership
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To enhance the efficiency and publicity of organization, it is necessary to involve various projects in the business operation. By selecting appropriate project plans, relevant competencies can easily be boosted. A project can be defined as a temporary undertaking so as to aid in the creation of a unique product or service offering. A program on the other hand is a situation when a group of related projects are managed in a coordinated manner to avail the benefits that is not possible if the projects are managed on an individual basis (Harrin, 2016). A project has a start as well as end point followed by specific objectives that are to be attained for its completion. A program on the other hand has multiple projects that are created to attain broad range of objectives that are organizational or technical in origin (Coleman and Glover, 2010).
Present report gives a concise analysis of programmed leadership. This management practice aims to lead different types of plans to realize the corporate programs (Bryde, 2003). To provide respective business examples, assignment will present some of the business practices of Jury’s Inn Islington London. Being one of the biggest chains of hotels in United Kingdom, it offers several facilities to their customers and is currently undertaking different programs.
Analysis of the business strategy of Jurys Inn
To review the programmed leadership of company, it is essential to consider overall business operations of enterprise. It is critical to establish an appropriate set of projects to generate the highest possible benefits for company and also, for its brand image. Before launching or defining any new projects, company needs to evaluate the whole business process as well as the strategy and mission (Eve, 2007). Jurys Inn Islington London is one of the famous tourist attractions in London and provides high-quality services with extraordinary food quality. In order to attain the mission and vision of company, they need to recruit and retain a highly skilled workforce. The mission of business is to be the preeminent global hospitality company as well as the first choice of guests. According to their vision statement, they want to provide quality services to the customers with following the standards of hospitality industry. In order to achieve the set mission and vision in their hotel, particular objectives are developed by the organization. With this focus, firm can provide quality services to their customers.
Nowadays, people are much more conscious about leisure activities. Organizations that operate in the hospitality sector focus on the needs of customers. Further, they provide services in agreement with their requirements so that customers can be satisfied in an efficient manner. With the help of proper market research, they can be prepared to meet different purposes of the visitors. It is important for the hotel industry to give sufficient services to all clients. With the assistance of greater facilities, they can stay and spend a pleasant time within hotel (Seong, 2013). Increasing competition in hospitality industry hampers the efficiency level of business in a different manner. In order to analyze their business strategy, Porter’s five force model can be taken into consideration. It clearly presents the current state and business strategy of Jurys Inn such as:
- Competitive rivalry: This force examines the extent to which intense competition is currently present in the marketplace. There is an increasing rivalry within hospitality firms nowadays. Further, rivalry competition is high for the business of Jurys Inn.
- Bargaining power of suppliers: The power of business supplier is also high as business is in better position.
- Bargaining power of customer: Hospitality industry is one of the fastest growing sectors and there are various options that are open for all customers. Further, there is high bargaining power of customers in this industry. Consumer power is high due to several available options.
- Threat of new entrants: Due to increasing competition within hospitality industry, it is difficult for the new business firms to enter into the markets. Further, threat of new entrant is low in the specific industry.
- Threat of substitute products or services: This force is high within hospitality industry as it is easy for the consumers to switch from business products or services to the competitors.
Due to increasing competitive environment, it is becoming tougher for the staff members to work. In order to gain higher competitive advantage, Jurys Inn Islington includes different sorts of projects to grant the highest possible level of services in the field of luxury ambiance and technological advancements in the kitchen appliances (Black, Akintoye and Fitzgerald, 2000). They are going to establish the rooftop restaurants with excellent ambiance to attract a high number of customers. Following projects should be considered at Jurys Inn:
- Development of a new rooftop restaurant and their various branches in different cities to expand their business for long-term sustainability.
- Upgrade of kitchen appliances with several technological advancements.
- Changes in the ambiance of hotel to attract more clients.
Hospitality industry is one of the most promising and rising sectors across the world. Individual companies, therefore, have to use latest technologies to have innovation in the future to compete with their competitors (Hamilton, 2010). From the program leader’s point of view, the above-mentioned changes and projects will support the hotel management to achieve their vision and mission. The program of launching a rooftop restaurant aims to set the following objectives:
- In order to gain the loyalty of their customers, highly advanced services are offered.
- Providing excellent ambiance.
- Fast and quality services to their consumers with the use of technologically advanced kitchen equipment.
- Attainment of an edge over other players in the industry.
- Attracting young people as they are highly involved in the hospitality services and prefer to visit new places and restaurants. Young people are their target customers who are highly attracted towards a new rooftop restaurant. With setting their target market, they can quickly provide quality services with appropriate management operations.
For the proper development of new rooftop building, it is quite essential to formulate appropriate objectives that need to be attained. With the help of above given and set objectives, Jurys Inn can easily achieve the target market and can attract a great number of customers (Coleman and Glover, 2010). There are several benefits of initiating these projects that will support the business strategy of Jurys Inn:
- Attainment of the edge over rivals: Nowadays, one of the major problems faced by companies is increasing competition. Due to this, each and every organization is adopting different strategies to compete with their rivals. Jurys Inn can quickly achieve its objectives with the help of appropriate planning. By going through proper planning for the development and formulation of new project, Jurys Inn can easily capture a larger market share. Rooftop restaurant is the major attraction point for all the young consumers. It will improve the brand image of hotel (Kousholt, 2007). With setting up this project, they can provide quality hospitality services to all their customers and can easily enhance their market share.
- Quality services: With the procurement of superior quality food, customers can be attracted towards the new unit of rooftop restaurant. Furthermore, initiating the new project can involve adoption of the latest and technologically advanced equipments as well as resources for the kitchen. Moreover, they can make their kitchen well equipped and furnished so that services can be offered within minimal time span to the customers (Meredith and Mantel, 2011). High quality may improve the overall efficiency of hotel.
- Increasing customer base: One of the major benefits of developing this new project is that it would assist in increasing the number of returning clients for Jurys Inn. Furthermore, visitors coming from various countries for personal, business or leisure purposes would also be pleased to a great extent. This fact would result in increasing the customer base in an effective manner. This must raise the level of profit margin.
In this regard, programs are likely to provide several benefits in the form of increasing overall client base and provision of effective services that are also of high quality followed by gaining a competitive advantage over rival firms.
1.2 Negotiation with stakeholders
In case of the project of Jurys Inn, major stakeholders are the HR manager of hotel, the operation manager, the board of directors, the government, the shareholders, the staff members, etc. There are several roles and responsibilities being played by the stakeholders. These are as follows; Shareholders as well as investors of the organization can question about the overall expenses in the new launching of their product. They possess concise behavior about their fund in both the cases of success and failure of the project. In addition to this, the board of directors is also required to provide approval regarding the development of the new restaurant project.
A stakeholder is a person who will directly be affected by the outcomes of corporate decision-making process. It is essential for any organization to negotiate with their stakeholders to know the current needs and demands. However, before involving any new project in the business operations, stakeholders should have appropriate knowledge about the new project as it might affect the overall operations and productivity of company. Stakeholders are a crucial part of the firm as they help in making better decisions. In order to start a new project, there is a great demand for increasing the participation of stakeholders within organization. This happens because they play a crucial role in making investment within organization to a great extent. Process of negotiation is being used with an aim to gain support of the stakeholders. In different projects, negotiation of distinct stakeholders is taken into consideration (Lewis, 2007). Under this, various techniques can be used by their stakeholders in order to negotiate effectively like in case of project of Jurys Inn, major stakeholders are the HR manager of hotel, the operation manager, board of directors, government, shareholders and the staff members. There are several roles and responsibilities that are being played by the stakeholders. These are like; shareholders as well as investors of the organization can question about the overall expenses in the new launching of their product. They possess concise behavior about their fund in both the cases of success and failure of the project. In addition to this, board of directors is also required to provide approval regarding the development of new restaurant project.
From the above stakeholder analysis mapping, it has been analyzed that there are various stakeholders such as employees, investors, customers, etc. They provide several benefits such as project manager is responsible for the use of sustainable business model and allows this model to actualize the products. They had given huge contribution at the time of work load and provided consistent risk of project failure. On the other hand, employees are the most important stakeholders of any organization and it is essential for the firm to go through appropriate methods through which employee satisfaction and productivity can be enhanced. However, customers’ help in increasing the social product mean and always take a risk at the time of purchasing any products.
In order to identify the objectives and benefits of these projects, a meeting was arranged. Key representatives of each stakeholder were invited. All feedbacks, whether positive or negative, was taken into consideration. Several difficulties were mentioned as most of the stakeholders were not satisfied with the given projects. Program of launching the new rooftop restaurant requires a high amount of investment and budget and they are concerned about the funds in case if the project fails (Reiss, 2007). For the new rooftop restaurant, more employees will have to be hired and modern kitchen appliances will also require high investment. Before consulting about the proposal, it was essential to deliver appropriate information about the benefits of all these projects to all the stakeholders.
- Customers - They are the most important stakeholders of company. In order to consult with the consumers, it is important to understand them as well as their requirements. With the help of a questionnaire, their needs and demands can be efficiently identified. With the help of taking several feedbacks from customers, all their values and requirements can be taken into consideration.
- Employees - It is essential to negotiate with employees in terms of developing the new project. Appropriate information about the project as well as its services should be duly communicated to employees so that they will be able to deal with all the customers directly. They cannot be consulted with the help of meetings or internal e-mail system. Along with this negotiation, employees can be offered to have high salary and promotion. It is the best part by which they can perform all their tasks in an effective manner. With the help of this, employees can increase their performance with respect to society, environment and economy. Employees also want to increase their business success through the contribution that is made to society and the environment.
- Top management - These people cannot be negotiated personally and they can give various reviews as per their level of experience. Reviews from these people can be taken into account. With the increase in market share of hotel, high level of satisfaction can be offered to them. Furthermore, they would enhance their ability to negotiate by generating value for business and society. They can easily optimize environmental efficiency and can commercialize the environmental and social products.
- Government- Negotiation with the government is an essential aspect. With the absence of permission from the government, business cannot run in a smooth manner. There is a need for getting prior approval from them by complying with proper documentation as well as essential legal requirements. This material can be further sent through emails. After getting approval from their side, the program can be launched.
Negotiation skills of the project manager are not just limited to external parties of the company but it also applies to the effective communication with everybody who is directly or indirectly related to the business objectives. It is essential for the project manager to have appropriate information about the culture of different countries. He is responsible for handling projects in different countries. For the same, if he is having cultural sensitivity skill then he would be able to handle different projects and can easily negotiate with the dealer of different country as per their culture at the same time. However, he must have awareness about different personality traits of an individual through which a person is capable of managing the project and solving any type of problem.
Most of the managers are effective in negotiating with vendors, contractors, etc. but they are not efficient enough in dealing with the team members and customers. It might result in the decrease of their market share as they are unable to offer quality services to the customers by their needs. It is crucial for a project manager to understand the various interests of people that are involved in different activities to resolve all their problems. For this, it is also necessary to know about their diverse interest in negotiations. People belong to diverse culture as well as backgrounds and it is essential to negotiate with them on the basis of cultural sensitivity.
Plan for the programme of projects
- After going through negotiation process with stakeholders, next process is the development of plan for the program. The support of all required stakeholders (employees, customers and the top management team) is also essential and based on this plan, feasibility of the whole program can be judged. The plan should be drawn as follows:
- Building a new rooftop restaurant: In order to build a new rooftop in Jurys Inn, advanced information is required to set the lounge or rooftop on the top floor of hotel. Permission from the local authorities needs to be taken in advance. The construction can be handed over as a tender to a building company. It is also necessary to establish the whole budget with appropriate timeframes. Moreover, several resources are required to set an excellent ambiance and it should be in agreement with the financial resources available within organization. Professional and efficient allocation of financial, human and technological resources is critical in accomplishing the project effectively (Kerzner, 2009).
- Upgrade of the kitchen equipment and development of the kitchen staff: There are several technologically advanced kitchen appliances such as Cook tops with LCD, tandoor, etc. To provide quick services to customers, specialist chefs can also be hired to improve cooking and other kitchen procedures. The responsibilities need to be distributed properly with ensuring high level of monitoring as well. For this, appropriate staff members and whole kitchen staff need to be recruited. Experienced cooking staff and chef handle all their responsibilities in an appropriate way. With the help of this, fresh and quality food can be served to all their customers. Installation of advanced equipments and accessories will require funds. It also requires installation charges as well as appropriate training must be provided to all the staff members for the utilization of new equipments. For this, an appropriate analysis team will be hired for the selection of best suitable equipments for the kitchen. In addition to this, extra funds will be required to train the employees about new equipments. Total cost allocated for the project is 400,000 Euros.
The project manager will be completely responsible for laying out the plans for different activities and he will also obtain approval from the Board of Directors. This planning describes different project deliverables including a stakeholder analysis. Managerial roles include proper instructions to all their subordinates as well as the development of the most appropriate planning that is based on the requirements of customers. They are also responsible for developing a risk management plan under which a contingency plan will be developed. It helps them in managing their business operations at the time of natural disasters, data loss, etc. In any hotel industry, HR department plays a crucial role in assigning these responsibilities.
2.1 Leading the coordination of programme
One of the most important project tasks is proper coordination among individuals and resources. It is necessary to communicate with all the stakeholders to achieve the target of company. For this, it is important for the manager to follow a participative style of leadership so that all team members can be encouraged and considered as an important part of the team.
Company can apply a pyramid structure of communication in which the decisions are passed down from top management to middle level and then to employees. This particular structure is justified in case of complex projects and involvement of third parties. This structure is flexible enough so that everyone can put forward their views and participate in the decision- making process.
Other than the communication process, it is also important for the managers to apply a continuous monitoring process. It is the most active process by which they can access the status of activities with relation to the standards defined as well as resources allocated. Regular monitoring will help the manager to identify problems and will also assist them to take rapid measures so that unseen events can be avoided. Through timely monitoring of business activities, deviation in activities can be determined. All the business activities need to be monitored in order to make alterations so that gaps in the activities can be removed and objectives of the hotel can be achieved efficiently.
Supplier and employment contracts will have to be signed respectively. A contract should be given to the construction company to complete the project within a given time frame. Several chefs are also appointed to the hotel through which they can provide quality food which suits the taste of their customers. Different technicians are also hired for the installation and maintenance of new equipment (Brewer and Strahorn, 2012).
2.2 Management of resources
In order to achieve the long-term objectives of company, there is a great need to accomplish the project activities within specified time. The funds assigned to all team members need to be utilized effectively. Management of the resources is a critical business activity that requires development of suitable plans. Proper communication with the purchasing department and reviewing the cash-flow can certainly contribute to the success of leadership. As a result, controlling can also be improved and this would offer deeper insight to the availability of financial resources in business.
Apart from this, HR department needs to recruit several skilled employees for the efficient operations of the new restaurant. It is highly essential for them to go through the effective management of all resources such as financial, physical as well as better co-ordination of all resources (Coleman and Glover, 2010). For the same, they need to implement these resources in an effective manner. Further, specific skills for specific positions are required which must be fulfilled by an individual. For example, in case of recruiting HR manager of company, it is essential that candidate must have minimum 1 year experience in the same field of industry. He/she must have effective communication skills so that he/she can easily interact with other members. Multitasking as well as negotiation skills are another major areas which are required to set for the appropriate and vacant position.
Furthermore, manager should organize regular meetings with the board members and entire top management to finalize the investment that will be required in order to launch a product for a specific segment. There are various financial sources which should be analyzed carefully in terms of cost and revenues. For instance, the sources of finance include external as well as internal sources. The former is comprised of sources such as a loan from the bank, hire purchase or issues of shares (Lock, 2007). The internal sources are like sales of assets and retained earnings. Resources can be arranged from both internal and external sources. All the resource requirements in terms of machines, appliances and furniture for the restaurant should be listed. Furthermore, they need to furnish their kitchen with all the equipments according to the requirements. It also involves the cost analysis, source and timing of delivery. Coordination of different activities of the project will also be required so that overlapping and repetition is avoided. Allocation of resources should be done appropriately so that all kinds of wastage can be avoided. For example, the team leader should assign appropriate responsibilities such as project assignment with completion deadlines and task handling related to all their team members according to their capabilities and skills.
2.3 Review and monitoring of the projects
In order to review and monitor the project plan, it is essential to involve all the teams as well as the staff members. Jurys Inn is the largest hotel in London and all their business operations are well managed by different departments. In order to formulate any new strategy as well as for the development of any new project, it is essential to communicate all the objectives to different departments (Nienaber, 2010). At the time of project finalization, financial resources should be reviewed so that implementation can be improved. An appropriate budget for the project is necessary to be determined so that sound monitoring can be done. Cost- benefit and critical path analysis are the effective ways that set project plans. Critical path analysis is the best project management tool that helps the project manager to handle time- sensitive business operations as well as the complex processes (Thomas, 2000). Benchmarks were set for the kitchen equipment upgrade so that required results can be attained within stipulated time. Moreover, there are various critical situations that may arise in the pathway of program. In order to manage this situation, alterations within several business practices are required.
Further, monitoring for the above program can also be prepared by the researcher in terms of:
- Follow up - Evaluation of all the tasks involved in the project.
- Focus on Objectives - Complete focus on ultimate aim of the project and monitoring each and every activity properly.
- Regular analysis of Review Reports - It is necessary for the manager to review the complete project report that provides the basis for analysis,
- Mechanism- A monitoring mechanism can be established to ensure commitment, feedbacks and proper direction through regular meetings with all stakeholders of company. Checklist can be incorporated in order to review the progress of program. This will help in taking corrective actions as well.
Monitoring and reviewing the project plan can also be done properly if there has been an identification of issues. These can be with respect to timing, resolving the conflict as well as renegotiating the goals. If these issues are resolved in a manner then the success of entire program can be defined.
2.4 Reporting the program’s progress and results to stakeholders
The project should be properly finalized and the progress of these programs needs to be evaluated on different basis such as timely, resource and quality dimensions. There are different techniques like Gantt chart that demonstrates the time frame to accomplish the activities in the program relating to each individual project. However, such tools need to gain clear information regarding the project and about the time frame required. Furthermore, publicity and promotion are also the important parts of project. Different types of reporting can be done:
Reprting To be Done
Board of directors
Reporting is properly done in order to inform the board of directors so that they can understand the way in which activities have been proceeded. Issues and their impacts can also be indicated.
Reporting needs to be done in order to inform the project manager about the record of all activities in the project execution. It allows the manager to access and identify the performance in terms of time and quality.
Press release in order to identify the work needs to be done.
It is essential for all the workers for reporting to their high authorities. They should update their higher authorities on the basis of work done by them. Further, they can provide appropriate feedbacks to employees through which overall performance can be improved. It is essential for the individuals to give report to the manager so that project can be accomplished effectively. Thus, through giving proper feedback to individuals, desired results can be attained. Thus, it can be stated that it is the best way through which project can be completed and results can be attained.
2.5 Closing the program and projects
It can be evaluated that by going through closing of the program and projects, total outcomes obtained from the process can be offered to different stakeholders of the firm. However, it is essential for the organization to go through the program and to support the stakeholders so that no conflicts would happen at the time of ending the process. Thus, closing the process can be done through managing and carrying out auditing process effectively. It helps to gain ideas about the flow of capital. Through ensuring the appropriate closing of project, it supports in reviewing the success of program. Thus, it is essential to sign up a contract with a construction company (Lock, 2007). The project manager needs to set the time frame so that assigned task can be accomplished effectively. Thus, it is quite essential to go through the total outcome of the program that is offered to different stakeholders. They can verify their support as well as their interest in the particular program. However, the project closure phase involves different steps by which the management team can release final outcomes to the customers as well as can communicate project closure to all the stakeholders. In this way, appropriate evaluation can take place regarding the manner in which project is performed against each of its target. In this way, initiation and planning phases of the project should be set. In order to go through this, project closure model can be adopted by the business. Some of the procedures that are being adopted at the time of closure are:
- Project Closure Meeting - It is important for the project manager to hold meetings with stakeholders so that common conclusion can be drawn from meetings. At this meeting, everything from project start up to the final phase will be discussed in detail like how the plan started, how it was executed, issues, conflicts, strengths, weaknesses, methods and techniques, etc. Main aim of this meeting is to find that whether everything planned at the beginning has been covered or not.
- Define Success - It is essential to define whether the project team was able to deliver the project in appropriate quality and timeframe or not.
- Closing Contacts- It is essential for company to have a strong relationship with all individuals who are involved in closing contract. This meeting is also executed in order to update all the records from these people
3.1 Assessing the success of projects with project managers
Success of projects can be assessed with a balanced scorecard which tracks various activities for measuring their effectiveness. Balance scorecard is a strategic planning and management system tool that is used by various business firms as well as government. It retains traditional financial measures and also helps in measuring financial performance. It balances between internal and external measures as well as performance results and the drivers of future results. At the end, a complete summary of the project is prepared which reveals the actual plans and deviations from them.
Project manager can easily evaluate the success of this project by measuring its performance. It not only considers financial measures but also look for the customer, business process and learning measures. Applying balance scorecard contains various steps such as:
- Identify vision: Create a balance scorecard
- Identify perspectives: Organization’s future
- Identify CSF’s: Identification of strengths and the way to get there
- Identify measures: Find out the critical success factors
- Evaluation: Measurement that everything is going in a right way
- Identify strengths: It is essential to consider that right things are measured
- Create action plan: Based on the whole work, creating appropriate action plan and operations of the scorecard.
- Follow up and manage: Setting up the criteria that how scorecard will be managed and which person is authorized for the same.
3.2 Review of the success of program
It is the last and most important stage in which whole program is evaluated in order to measure the success. It is done with the help of proper evaluation and for reviewing the success of program. It can be determined on the basis of extent to which objectives are achieved by the projects. The evaluation of fund which is utilized by different sources or its effectiveness is measured by the firm. With the help of taking several feedbacks from the stakeholders, project manager can go through the changes which are required to be attained. They can also justify the efforts, cost, time and support from different stakeholders. Further, it offers information about the way in which reviewing process can be managed. Each and every project manager should submit a project report that includes the time required to accomplish the project and the cost associated with the plan. In addition to this, it would also include the benefits of implementing plan (Reiss, 2007). After submission of this report, it must be evaluated on the basis of success of the project and its impact on the program. Construction project takes take a lot of time, so, it is better to take precautions and to measure the time for each work phase. It may lead to decrease the quality of services and several other reasons such as poor availability of labor force in the region, unfavorable working environment and other related issues. With the help of proper alignment of resources, company can enhance their sales as well as can attract a huge customer base.
3.3 Areas for Improvement in Future Program Management and Leadership
In order to go through effective development and areas for improvements in the future program, it is essential to take several feedbacks. With the help of appropriate training and development, better implementation of program can be done. Effective training helps in developing better communication skills as it will help them to better communicate the plan with their coordinators (Lock, 2007). With the help of sharing knowledge and information, teams can effectively learn and grow their knowledge more about the places where they need improvements.
There is a huge improvement required in the future management program as well as in leadership. Leaders have to focus on several aspects that assist in influencing the behavior of others. For future development, they need to improve their communication skills as it will help them to better communicate the plan with their coordinators. It is essential at the time of explaining benefits and objectives of plan that must be clear to the stakeholders (Thomas, 2000). The overall kitchen up gradation needs high amount of fund so the area which should be improved is to make the project more cost efficient. It is necessary to select all those resources which would be less costly comparative to other resources. Further, the employees should be ready to accept new challenges and to adopt the best training for new and advanced up-graded kitchen equipment’s. Further, employees should always be ready for the change and management needs to assure them that change will be beneficial for them. In order to avoid variance at the end, there should be proper monitoring of the project. It should be ensured that variances will not occur in further project. By selecting effective leadership and through including team members in decision making, they feel motivated and encouraged. It is an appropriate manner through which they can easily achieve their target. In order to go through the above mentioned improvements, program leader has to gain knowledge about the proper project management and risk management techniques. This would assist the program leader in managing tasks in accordance with the time specified for project accomplishment.
It can be concluded from the study that the role of program leadership is crucial for any organization. The whole report was based on Jurys Inn Islington London and on their new project that was opening a new roof top restaurant. From the above report, it can be articulated that the best resources of fund should be selected in order to make the overall project cost efficient. Whole strategy must be planned carefully and further; several points must be covered for the future improvements. Moreover, program leadership is the best practice through which every project can be completed within specified time and further organization can attain its quality objectives as well.
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