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Penicillin Antibiotic Discovery And Global Impact Digital Journal Entry
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What does Penicillin do?
Penicillin puts a stop to bacteria from the peptidoglycan synthesis; the molecular cell provides that wall with strength required to survive the human body. Drugs highly debilitate the wall of the cell and causes it to do, providing a person to retrieve from the bacterial infection.
What is meant by ‘resistance to antibiotics’?
Antibiotic resistance occurs when the germs such as fungi and bacteria develop the capability to beat the drugs planned to kill (Callaway, et. al. 2021) This means that germs are not murdered and carry on with to grow. Above than 2.8 million “antibiotic-resistant infections” happen in each year of the U.S.
How does the overuse of antibiotics lead to antibiotic resistance?
Taking antibiotics of viral illness and colds that doesn’t work - it can build bacteria harder to murder. For frequently antibiotics taking wrong causes of change bacteria too much that don’t work on antibiotics against them.
What are the global consequences of antibiotic resistance?
Antibiotic resistance guide to increased mortality, higher medical price and “prolonged hospital stays”. The world quickly requires to change the pathway of uses and prescribes antibiotics. While the new medicines increased, without the change of behavior, antibiotic resistance may remain a vital threat.
How did resistance to Penicillin develop in microbes and could this happen with new antibiotics?
Antibiotic resistance dispatched when antibiotics pressure that present to adapt fungi and bacteria. Antifungals and antibiotics kill a few germs which cause infections, also they kill the helpful germs which protect the body from that infection. The “antibiotic-resistant” germs multiply and survive. The two vital ways which can acquire bacterial cells of antibiotic-resistance. From this one is due to mutation which happens in the cell of DNA through replication (Machowska, 2019) And the other is bacteria acquire antibiotic-resistance due to transfer of horizontal genes.
How are new antibiotics developed and tested?
Developing new antibiotic-resistance is not so easy because this is a rigorous and long process including drug discovery in a laboratory, analyzing the safety and efficacy, followed by put forward “Clinical and Preclinical Tests” and “Investigational drug Application (IND)” (Singer, 2020) Antibiotics are made industrially by the procedure of fermentation.
Callaway, T. R., Lillehoj, H., Chuanchuen, R., & Gay, C. G. (2021). Alternatives to antibiotics: A symposium on the challenges and solutions for animal health and production. Antibiotics, 10(5), 471. Retrieved on https://www.mdpi.com/2079-6382/10/5/471/pdf [Retrieved on 02.05.2022]
Machowska, A., & Stålsby Lundborg, C. (2019). Drivers of irrational use of antibiotics in Europe. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(1), 27. Retrieved from https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/1/27/pdf [Retrieved on 02.05.2022]
Singer, A. C., Kirchhelle, C., & Roberts, A. P. (2020). (Inter) nationalising the antibiotic research and development pipeline. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(2), e54-e62. Retrieved from http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/id/eprint/525259/1/N525259PP.pdf [Retrieved on 02.05.2022]