Important: Our WhatsApp number is changing from +61 2 7908 3995 to +44 20 3608 8443 due to technical reasons

Musculoskeletal Age-Related Changes and Risk Factors for Functional Decline in the Elderly

  • Plagiarism & Error Free Assignments By Subject Experts
  • Affordable prices and discounts for students
  • On-time delivery before the expected deadline

No AI Generated Content

62000+ Projects Delivered

500+ Experts

Enjoy Upto 35% off
- +
1 Page
35% Off
AU$ 11.83
Estimated Cost
AU$ 7.69
Securing Higher Grades Costing Your Pocket? Book Your Assignment At The Lowest Price Now!

Musculoskeletal Aging and Its Impact on Daily Living

Get Free Samples Written by our Top-Notch Subject Experts For Taking Online Assignment Help Services

Impact of musculoskeletal age-related changes on Marion

The term musculoskeletal refers to the muscle and the bones. There are several problems related to muscle and bones that older people face. This is one of the age-related changes that older people have. At older ages, the bones of people may start to lose calcium. Hence, the bones become much weaker than at a younger age. Weaker bones may easily get cracked or can be broken. Muscles also get affected like bones. The muscles get weaker at that age. Muscles do not attach properly to the bones. Muscles get loose at the age of 70. Now, people have difficulty moving here and there. People may have difficulty getting up or walking. Osteoporosis is one of the problems that people may face in their old age. These problems can be seen in postmenopausal women (Stewart, & Loftus, (2018).

When a woman reaches postmenopausal age, she may start facing several problems. These problems include osteoporosis. At old age, the density of bone becomes weaker. Besides, poor posture at an older age may lead to a greater problem. Poor posture may lead to pain in the joints and it causes muscle pain. Poor posture may lead to the vertebral column may be affected the most. The fluid of the vertebral column may decrease. At this age, the risk of injury increases because people face the problem to maintain the balance of the body. The problems seem to be very broad after the age of 70 years. After 70 years both skeletons and the muscle tends to be affected severely. The motion at old age becomes slower because the bones lose their flexibility at that age. Besides, the cartilage is also affected by this point in time (Lacey, et. al., 2018). Several musculoskeletal changes that people may face at their older age are:

  • Reduction of muscle fibres
  • The rate of replacement of muscle tissues is very slow
  • The nervous system also changes during this age; this may lead to the reduction of ability to muscle contact.
  • At an older age, the bone joints do not have direct contact with the bones.
  • Joints movement becomes stiffer.
  • People may face problems moving their limbs

Marion is an old woman. She is 76 years old. She has a daughter, named Kylie. Marion had a musculoskeletal problem because of her age. She had faced difficulties getting up from her armchair. At this age, the muscles and the bones face several problems. Her joints and the bone may have faced difficulty moving her limbs. For this reason, she may have difficulty moving from place to palace (Crossland et al. 2019). Sometimes, she faced difficulty getting up when she tripped over. This happens because, at this age, joints of the body become weaker. Her muscles also become weaker, so she cannot move fast enough. Hence, Marion is facing several age-related musculoskeletal problems.

Physical risk factors of Marion that may lead to her functional decline

Several risk factors can occur at an older age. At this age, people may face several problems. Sometimes, these problems may cause a person's functional decline. These physical problems include stroke, Alzheimer's disease, heart disease, and so on. Several problems can be seen as side effects of musculoskeletal problems at an older age (Hermann, et. al. 2019). There is a high chance of injury at an older age. This happens because of physical weakness. As the body becomes very weak at this age, the person cannot maintain body balance. Hence, they may fail to walk properly and may fall. Injury in the old area may lead to great suffering. If the bones get cracked at this age, the bone takes more time to get cured. Hence, old people should take care to maintain their balance. They should walk slowly and should not make any hurry to go here and there. There is a huge chance of non-communicable disease at this age. This may be caused by poor health or lack of nutrition. If proper nutrition is not taken at an older age, people may face several physical problems (Blyth, et. al, 2020). Hence, a proper and healthy diet is necessary for old age to avoid any kind of physical problems. Arthritis is a common health problem that is faced by older people. This may cause other physical problems during old age. Another old age physical problem is a respiratory disease. Older people may face the problem of respiration during older age.

In this study, Marion is facing ambulating problems. Her nurse has said that she is facing this problem. At her age, several physical problems may occur. Hence, she cannot walk properly to the palace. This is a common problem at this age. Older people face difficulties moving their limbs. Hence, they face problems moving their hands and legs. This may lead them to walk properly. Marion has problems with her bone joints and muscles. Her joints became less flexible and her muscles became weaker. Hence, she cannot move her body to the palace. She may also face problems in balancing while walking. Therefore, she has a chance to fall while walking. If someone her age falls it may cause a huge problem because, at her age, the bone becomes very weak (Lewis,, 2020). If the bone is broken, it may take more time to join again. As Marion is facing several old age issues related to bone and muscles, she may face a risk of functional decline. Kylie, Marion's daughter, has also noticed that Marion tripped out several times and she had difficulties getting up again. This happens because; at her age, it is difficult to maintain body balance. Not only has that but Kylie also noticed that her grocery bills are decreasing day by day. This means she does not feel much hunger. At her age, this is a common issue. If she does not take food properly, it may cause her physical decline. She will become weaker if she does not take proper food. At this age, proper nutrition is needed. Nutrition is the most important fact at her age. Healthy food and diet may decrease the weakness of old age. If Marion does not take her food properly, she may have to face serious physical problems. These problems may cause a decline of physical death. Hence, she is suggested to eat properly to avoid physical weakness.

Identification and analysis of one psychological risk factor that helps in influencing Marion’s risk for functional decline

Marion is 76-years old and she is mainly leaving independently. She is regularly taking with her woman for some time. After some days, her woman is noticed that Mrs Marion faced some un-well situations. She has been increased some difficulties which are ambulating. After some identification, her daughter has stated that her mother has faced some major diseases. She is not eating well and faced some difficulties. Due to that reason, it can be stated that they that can rescue their mental ability can raise some of the major risk factors. Some of the major risk factors have been analyzed based on the psychological changes. Due to that reason, some of the major risk factors have been evaluated and those psychological factors can reduce their functions (Hamblen et al. 2019). As this lady is an older woman who lives independently, and no one is left alone for taking care of her. Due to that reason, she has some psychological disorders like trauma symptoms. Based on this symptom, some of their major problems can be faced by her. This kind of mental disorder has been mainly raised because of some risk factors for stress factors. She has faced this post-traumatic stress disorder. At this older age, it can be stated that based on this PTSD, major kinds of risks have been analyzed. For this PTSD, some of the major risk factors have been facades like anxiety and depression and eating disorders (Henkelmann et al. 2020). Mainly the eating disorders have faced by the older woman Marion. For this PTSD, some of the major risk factors have been faced by this well-mannered witnessing or experiencing a stressful event. Some of the re-experience symptoms of those events have included flashbacks or nightmares (Feder et al. 2021). On the other side, it has been also seen some efforts for avoiding some situations, people or places that are reminders of this PSTD traumatic events. However, some of the major hyper personal symptoms have been faced like concentration problems, sleep disturbance, stress, weakness, and irritability (Bisson et al. 2019). Based on this case study of this woman Marion, it can be stated that this woman has faced this weakness psychological disorder because she had told her daughter that she had tripped over for some minutes and faced some difficulties in getting back up. Moreover, she also faced some struggling from getting up some disorders. Based on this case study, it can be analyzed that for this functional decline, the main psychological reason can be PSTD through which this woman can face these kinds of functional disorders.

Analysing the sociological risk factor that will influence Marion’s risk for deadline function


As Marion is 70 years of age and living far from her daughter. It is an obvious factor that she is suffering from health-related issues. Furthermore, due to Covid protocols, she is unable to communicate with anyone. She has to restrict herself only in the house. She only visits the dance ballroom once a week. So she is not able to communicate with people formally. In these cases, loneliness is usually developed in these elderly people. As these peoples need some relaxation and interaction but Mariam is devoid of these emotions. So according to the medical professional, it is obvious that it will affect very badly.

  • Age: As Mariam's age is above 70 years old it is obvious that all the health-related issues will come upon her. At this age due to health-related problems like arthritis and other cardiovascular-related diseases she is unable to keep up the race with the younger ones. Furthermore, due to singlehood, she has to do all the household work by herself. She cannot go to grocery markets and buy the necessary items there. Again due to Covid protocols all the restriction was there so she cannot be able to do her daily work freely. She has to depend on her daughter who is also living far away.
  • Health Factors : At this age, it is quite obvious that health factors will also come. The problems of arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, and digestive problems arise in these cases majorly. Most elder people who cross the age above 70 have the problem of dementia, they tend to forget everything. It is mostly seen that these people suffer terribly from arthritis that they cannot move properly. These people are also unable to take medicines at the right time from the pharmacy shops as at this age they will forget to take the proper medicines. Often it is seen that she takes the wrong medicines.
  • Improper diet : Furthermore, age-related issues also heavily affected their diet. Often it has been found that she does not follow the diet as instructed by the doctor. As she lives alone, it is seen that she is unable to go to the kitchen many times and prepare her food. Thus in most cases, online delivery of food from the restaurant has happened. In these cases, those foods are very unhygienic and thus they fall into the diseases again. They are sometimes unable to prepare the foods at the right time as frequently they are affected by the health-related problems
  • Psycological issues : This is one of the major issues faced by this generation of people. In the case of Mariam, it seems that she is completely alone and always remains isolated from others. Furthermore, Covid issues also add to the Mariam. The free interactions should be done regularly so that the freshness should be there. In these cases, if these types of relaxation are not done, the tendency of suicidal impact is very common. Due to aloofness, mental problems started to develop among elderly people. They often feel isolated from others and they started to behave awkwardly.


  • Agarwal, S., Steinmaus, C., & Harris-Adamson, C. (2018). Sit-stand workstations and impact on low back discomfort: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ergonomics61(4), 538-552.
  • Bisson, J. I., Berliner, L., Cloitre, M., Forbes, D., Jensen, T. K., Lewis, C., ...& Shapiro, F. (2019). The international society for traumatic stress studies new guidelines for the prevention and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder: Methodology and development process. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 32(4), 475-483.
  • Blyth, F. M., Briggs, A. M., Schneider, C. H., Hoy, D. G., & March, L. M. (2019). The global burden of musculoskeletal pain—where to from here?. American journal of public health109(1), 35-40.
  • Crawford, J. O., Berkovic, D., Erwin, J., Copsey, S. M., Davis, A., Giagloglou, E., ...& Woolf, A. (2020). Musculoskeletal health in the workplace. Best practice & research clinical rheumatology34(5), 101558.
  • Crossland, H., Skirrow, S., Puthucheary, Z. A., Constantin?Teodosiu, D., &Greenhaff, P. L. (2019). The impact of immobilisation and inflammation on the regulation of muscle mass and insulin resistance: different routes to similar end?points. The Journal of physiology597(5), 1259-1270.
  • Drefahl, S., Wallace, M., Mussino, E., Aradhya, S., Kolk, M., Brandén, M., ...&Andersson, G. (2020). A population-based cohort study of socio-demographic risk factors for COVID-19 deaths in Sweden. Nature communications, 11(1), 1-7.
  • Feder, A., Costi, S., Rutter, S. B., Collins, A. B., Govindarajulu, U., Jha, M. K., ...&Charney, D. S. (2021). A randomized controlled trial of repeated ketamine administration for chronic posttraumatic stress disorder.American Journal of Psychiatry, 178(2), 193-202.
  • Hamblen, J. L., Norman, S. B., Sonis, J. H., Phelps, A. J., Bisson, J. I., Nunes, V. D., ... &Schnurr, P. P. (2019). A guide to guidelines for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults: An update. Psychotherapy, 56(3), 359.
  • Henkelmann, J. R., de Best, S., Deckers, C., Jensen, K., Shahab, M., Elzinga, B., &Molendijk, M. (2020). Anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees resettling in high-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis. BJPsych Open, 6(4).
  • Hermann, L., Wenzel, A., Schropp, L., &Matzen, L. H. (2019). Impact of CBCT on treatment decision related to surgical removal of impacted maxillary third molars: does CBCT change the surgical approach?. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology48(8), 20190209.
  • Lacey, R. J., Campbell, P., Lewis, M., &Protheroe, J. (2018).The impact of inadequate health literacy in a population with musculoskeletal pain. HLRP: Health Literacy Research and Practice2(4), e215-e220.
  • Leirós-Rodríguez, R., Rodríguez-Nogueira, Ó., Pinto-Carral, A., Álvarez-Álvarez, M., Galán-Martín, M. Á., Montero-Cuadrado, F., &Benítez-Andrades, J. A. (2020). Musculoskeletal pain and non-classroom teaching in times of the COVID-19 pandemic: Analysis of the impact on students from two Spanish universities. Journal of Clinical Medicine9(12), 4053.
  • Lewis, J. S., Cook, C. E., Hoffmann, T. C., & O'Sullivan, P. (2020). The elephant in the room: too much medicine in musculoskeletal practice. journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy50(1), 1-4.
  • Lin, M. P. (2020). Prevalence of internet addiction during the COVID-19 outbreak and its risk factors among junior high school students in Taiwan. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(22), 8547.
  • McGlory, C., van Vliet, S., Stokes, T., Mittendorfer, B., & Phillips, S. M. (2019). The impact of exercise and nutrition on the regulation of skeletal muscle mass. The Journal of physiology597(5), 1251-1258.
  • Pereda, N., &Díaz-Faes, D. A. (2020). Family violence against children in the wake of COVID-19 pandemic: a review of current perspectives and risk factors. Child and adolescent psychiatry and mental health, 14(1), 1-7.
  • Rai, N. K., &Tiwari, T. (2018). Parental factors influencing the development of early childhood caries in developing nations: a systematic review. Frontiers in public health, 6, 64.
  • Rodríguez-Nogueira, Ó.,Leirós-Rodríguez, R., Benítez-Andrades, J. A., Álvarez-Álvarez, M. J., Marqués-Sánchez, P., & Pinto-Carral, A. (2021). Musculoskeletal pain and teleworking in times of the COVID-19: analysis of the impact on the workers at two Spanish universities. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18(1), 31.
  • Stewart, M., & Loftus, S. (2018). Sticks and stones: the impact of language in musculoskeletal rehabilitation. journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy48(7), 519-522.
  • Zenk-Möltgen, W., Akdeniz, E., Katsanidou, A., Naßhoven, V., &Balaban, E. (2018).Factors influencing the data sharing behavior of researchers in sociology and political science. Journal of documentation.
Recently Download Samples by Customers
Our Exceptional Advantages   Order Now   Live Chat
Get best price for your work

offer valid for limited time only*

© Copyright 2024 | New Assignment Help | All rights reserved