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introduction: Manage Project Scope

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Knowledge Assessment

Question 1

The project scope includes objectives, deliverables, goals, costs, deadlines and a task plan for the project. It also allocates roles and responsibilities. It is written out into a scope statement or a statement of work and it is included as part of the project management plan. To define the project's scope, the following steps are needed: Project objectives, goals, sub-phases, tasks, resources, budget and schedule. 

Project objectives are the plan that is achieved both effectively and efficiently at the end of the project. It includes intangible objectives such as motivation or increasing productivity and deliverables and assets (Love and Matthews, 2019). The project's objective must be time-bound, attainable, and specific goals that are measured at the end. Project goals focus on the impact of the project that is the long-term effects. A well-developed project must have a description of the project effect and there is a link between the project objectives to the overall goals (Faris et al. 2022).

Project costs are the total requirement of funds that are needed to cover and fulfil the work project or business transactions monetarily. It involves Direct costs and Indirect costs. Direct costs are those costs that are mandatory to complete the project and Indirect costs are those costs that indirectly lead to the completion of the project (Abdel-Basset et al. 2020). The project Deadline refers to the last date of completing the project. It must be a single date that marks the end of the project. A task plan is an organised task that sets out the given task that is needed to complete by a specific person and the given timeline. It provides a clear idea of the work and enables management and tracking of the progress daily.

Question 2

The factors which impact the project scope are needed to be analysed, identified and understood before the project scope can be appropriately explained. These factors can either benefit project or adversely affect the project (Floridi et al. 2020). If all these factors are known at the beginning of the project, then the manager can identify the strategies that are adopted to have beneficial. Project scope-affecting factors include legal constraints, variable resource levels, changing stakeholder requirements, regulatory constraints, external and internal risks, constraints on time and managerial constraints. 

Project scope challenges and problem areas are the points at the time of project delivery. Once the team of the project identify the challenges and problems that negatively impact the scope of the project (Shameem et al. 2018). A few challenges or problems have been already recognised as potential scope impact factors. There are a few problems and challenges on projects that include sustained and unpredicted worst weather that negatively impacts schedule, organisational disputes, unpredicted losses of key employees, the entry of new technology and their impact on the latest systems, and difficult and demanding stakeholders acting outside the bounds, an outbreak that effect all-around absence among key participants, exchange rate fluctuations, that affect the cost of importing materials and equipment, unrealised site conditions, the unpredicted discovery of poisonous material on the working area or building site and change in user demand.

Question 3

The request leads to formal documents and is a major component of the change management process. The change requests come from outside or within the organisation. Some steps need to follow to request additional resources

In the initial stage, the need for additional project staff needs to be discussed. Then all the specific details that as the number of staff members needed for different projects and departments have to be included (Alsharef et al. 2018). After that, all the details regarding full-time or part-time and temporary or permanent and their all responsibilities and titles have been incorporated. Then, the benefits that are the advantage of additional staff to satisfy the supervisor needs to be spotted and these benefits are employee or finance-based and customer relations. At last, the budget is to be examined before including more staff in the work process.

The project scope starts with new performance that needs to be added to recover the increased opportunity.

More demands fulfilled = Better standard product. 

Time, cost and quality all are impacted in different ways such as delaying the project or providing more time to add performance (Alsharef et al. 2021). Acquiring and recruiting more people to do the extra work lead to a rise in cost-cut quality impacted in the time of trade-off between a few non-essential requirements and new requirements.

The change control process is important to detect the changes to a project and execute change control procedures effectively and efficiently to regulate the possible risks and bring down the chances of a negative impact on an organisation's productivity. It helps the manager to take decisions related to changing the requests for the project framework (Allaoui et al. 2019). The aim of this is to overcome unexpected situations and decrease unfavourable outcomes. Managers use this process to determine if a project increases the team's productivity levels, and is within a budget.

  1. Mobilize visible and active executive sponsorship.
  2. Apply a structured change organisational approach.
  3. Communicate openly and frequently.
  4. Engage with front-line employees.
  5. Dedicate change management resources.
  6. Integrate and engage with project management.
  7. Support middle managers.

Question 4

Managers of every restaurant manage the regular operations to prepare as well as serve food and beverages to their customers. Best planning skills are very much important to coordinate with all the departments and the kitchen is one of the main divisions to satisfy the food experience for customers. A manager of restaurant analyses, the recipes to determine the labour, food and overhead costs associated with it then determine the nutritional content of the serving after that the portion size and lastly assigns the price of each menu. For outcome and progress that they need to evaluate the demand for foods, place orders with distributors and schedule the distribution of fresh foods (Kusumowardani et al. 2022).

Question 5

Making a work breakdown structure for project one needs all types of information from different project management documents (Tereso et al. 2019).

In the initial stage, the Project Goals, Scope and Objectives are to be defined. In the next stage objectives and goals place a major role in defining my project scope are to be maintained. Next, the project phases and control accounts are to be recognised. After that, listing of all the project deliverables and then note the work that is needed for project deliverables are to be done. Next, it needs to start with the final project deliverables and think about all the work packages and deliverables. Then the deliverables from all above and then break them down into each task are to be taken and task owners are chosen.

Question 6

In this study, the project is based on the hospitality ground to organise the Mordialloc Food and Wine Festival for two days. The project lifecycle of this project plays an important role by tracking all the ensuring deadlines of the project. The project life cycle of this event is including four different stages that include initiation of the event, planning for the event, execution of the plan at the right time, and closing all of the stages of the project (Nunes and Abreu, 2020). The scope of project management helps to avoid some common challenges in the project that includes changing requirements constantly. It also helps in diverting the project director the mid-way in case of there is any kind of problem arise (Wu et al. 2019). It allows for realizing the final result as per the expectation. After that, this assists the project manager in not going to the expected and fixed budget. So this increases efficiency and not falls into the deadlines of the project. 

Question 7

 There are some important as well as vital project management tools that help to plan, define, estimate, control and validate the project (Parsamehr et al. 2022). Those tools help to increase the efficiencies of the project manager and also the project planner. Gantt charts, team building activities and Work Breakdown Structure are the three main management tools that are required for any kind of project management. There are some main features that project management tools need to have such as project estimation, resource allocation, budgeting, quality management, collaboration, risk management and also project administration (Kabeyi, 2019). Gantt charts refer to the visualization of the project timeline as well as make the dependencies between the two different types of work items.

Therefore, it helps to track the schedule of the particular project by checking the plan and also identifying the delays. On the other hand, this also helps to determine the critical tasks that will make the project complete at a fixed time (Lacity, 2018). The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) refers to the hierarchical breakdown of the whole project purpose into actionable work items. WBS also provides clarity of the project time as well as resources that are required in setting the project (Ilmi et al. 2020). Team building activities are another vital project management tool that helps to enhance morale and also raise team productivity by conducting healthy competitions. This also helps to strengthen the relationships among the team member and also with the stakeholders. 

Question 8

Project managers of a project play a vital role in planning, conducting, monitoring, managing, and also finishing the project at the expected time. First of all the project manager is responsible for developing the project charter as well as identifying the proper stakeholders for the project (Kerzner, 2022). These two are considered the initiating phase of the project management that a project manager can do. In the planning phase, the manager needs to develop the management plan by determining and managing the scope of the project. After that, the concerned manager requires to create the work Breakdown Structure (Mavi and Standing, 2018). Time management is another critical function that the project manager needs to plan and develop the schedules, estimate resources, and also the activities. 

On the other hand, the concerned person is also responsible for maintaining the quality of the project. In the executing phase, the manager might responsible for managing and directing all the work and also selecting and managing the team members of the project (Nicholas and Steyn, 2020). Managing the communication among the workers and other employees is also falling under the responsibility of the concerned person. After that, the manager needs to handle all the expectations of the stakeholders. Hence, the project manager needs to manage the project scope, time, budget, quality, and others factors in this phase (Portny, and Portny, 2022). In the closing phase, the manager is responsible for closing all steps of the project as well as all the procurements of the project. 

Question 9

It has been observed that a project has been featured with multiple operations that need to be performed accurately and concisely thus various types of documentation are associated with a project. 

Project Plan

Documentation of a project plan has been considered as a comprehensive part of any project and this type of document has been formulated during the planning phase of any project. 

Project Communication Plan

This type of documentation has a major role in terms of practising an effctive approach to communication during the execution phase of any project (Portny and Portny, 2022). Thus, it can be stated that the responsibilities and roles of stakeholders with respect to a scheduled time have been profoundly mentioned through this type of documentation.

Risk Register

This type of documentation has been comprised of a brief description of susceptible risks that might rise during the compilation of the project. Therefore, risk levels or intensity of risk can be explored in order to resolve the issues and can be guided through this type of documentation practice. 

Project Status Report

This type of report has been featured with in-depth details of operation levels comprised with any particular projects thus an overall overview of project performance can be gained from this type of documentation (Eloranta et al. 2022). Along with that data on the project, status has a major role in terms of sharing with stakeholders for accurate compilation of operations. 

Practical Assessment

Section 1: Project Scope Plan

1. Scope Management Approach

The scope management approach helps to define and identify the required actions that need to be delivered for the event of the ALH Group that is organised by the city of Kingstone for two days. Planning the scope management by including the outputs of the plan helps to meet the requirements of the project plan. After that, it helps to collect the requirements that include proper documentation and also the traceability matrix of the project. On the event of Saturday, the chefs are going to make their original signature dishes that include the local essence. On a Sunday evening, the organisers decided to invite a famous chef from Australia Master chef Billy McKay. Therefore, the scope of the event has been increased by enhancing the taste of the dishes that evening. Hence, this will help to attract different types of people for both days. On the second day, the Chef is going to prepare some international cuisines with the essence of the chef special. 

2. Project Scope Statement and Statement of Work (SOW)

The project scope statement helps to understand the reason for initiating the event. After that, the key objectives are identified such as showcasing the best regional and local cuisines and dishes by the best chefs and others (Carvalho et al. 2021). The project statement of the event needs to be outlined that helps to focus on the internal review of the customers and guests. Those reviews can help to understand the quality of the events that are organized. After that, the project manager of the event needs to work alongside essential stakeholders to record the items that are provided at the end of the event. This might help to identify the major constraints of the project. the statement of work also includes payment information including the project manager, chefs and also team members. There is an exclusion from the scope that the project is expected near about 40,000 people crowd in the event, however, the event could not reach that much crowd, Therefore, the expectation of the stakeholders cannot meet and the estimated budget cannot fulfil. 

3. Deliverables, Client Requirements and Acceptance Criteria

Deliverables

Client Requirements

Acceptance Criteria

Good quality service

Better quality service

The services need to be properly managed and organized.

Showcases the best local and regional chefs, producers and other people.

To meet and build a strong relationship with the people.

Developing a friendly environment.

Chefs for the cooking demonstration

Want to see the different types of cooking styles by the chefs

Famous chefs from the Australia master Chef.

Music concert 

Music concert

World-class musicians 

Introduce the service to the crowd

Introduce themselves and their services

Press conference

4. Constraints

There are some constraints in this two days event that needs to discuss to understand the mistakes. First of all the time management was not set properly as per the previous planning. Therefore, this increased the rush of the crowd on the second evening. Crowd management is very vital and critical in this type of event. Hence, some of the VIP guests are offended by the event and complaint about this. On the other hand, the estimated budget for the event was $10,000 that was provided by the council. However, in the end, it is estimated that only $9245 was collected. On the first evening, the quality of the wine is not top-notch that also made the guests disappointed. 

5. Scope Management Procedures and Processes

The project manager and the team members of this event have the authority as well as responsibility for scope management. The scope of the project has been checked by the project manager and the team members included in this event (Drouin et al. 2018). The quality of the food is checked before being prepared and as well as the wine is checked before being delivered to the event. On the other hand, the work performance of all the people including regional producers, suppliers, chefs, wineries, breweries and musicians are trained before performing for the event. Also, there is needed to estimate the budget that is already spent still in the event and the remaining cost. In the scope changes process, the stakeholders, and some VIP clients of the event initiated the scope changes process. The project manager is responsible for accepting the final project deliverable and approving the acceptance of the project scope. The change control system of this event has been done by the project manager and the team members.

6. Impact Statement

Stakeholders, VIP clients, VIP chefs, musicians and press are the parties and on the other hand, Concept-to-product, order-to-cash, and demand-to-supply are impacted by this project. Therefore, the mentioned process of this event made the project profitable. It is executed to increase the effectiveness of the project as well as the people who are included. Therefore, the source corporate sponsors to improve the promotional actions and contribute to costs. 

8. Work Breakdown Structure

Figure 1: Timeplan

(Source: Self-developed)

Figure 2: WBS

(Source: Self-developed)

There are three main phases of this WBS of this event that includes planning, executing, and monitoring. Planning refers to making an estimated budget, developing a team, setting the goal of the event, arranging the resources and equipment and also arranging stakeholders. On the other hand, the execution phase refers to maintaining the quality of service and products, assigning the task to each team member, delivering the expected outcomes of the stakeholders, maintaining the project as per the cost and also handling the crowd. Therefore, in the monitoring phase, there are some works included such as monitoring the staff and other employees, Checking quality assurance, Risk mitigation and monitoring the budget.

Section 2: Project Scope Execution and Evaluation 

1.a.

In contrast to the scenario, a change request has been made with respect to the 20% reduction of the budget by the side of the council. The previous budget value of approximately 10000 dollars and due to the reduction of budget it became nearly 8000 dollars. Thus, a loss with respect to the profit margin may occur due to such a change request thus evaluation of the change request has been performed. 

The change request has been evaluated based on the "Statement of Work" (SOW) and it has been found, supporting materials have been already provided by the council. Thus, the option of requesting supporting materials has been voided thus lonely adjustment can be made through a reduction of time or workforce (Guo and Zhang, 2022). However, it can be stated that reduction of the workforce may bring issues of effective management of the concerned event. 

b. 

AREAS

ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT ON PROJECT

IMPACT MANAGEMENT STRATEGY

Cost

The reduction of the cost may result in a few distinct impacts such as a low margin of profit. 

Therefore, the project estimate and SOW need to be revised and updated with new planning. 

Time

The risk accosted with the operations increase and hampers the quality of service. 

Therefore, a revised plan based on the "Work Breakdown Structure" needs to be formulated.

Quality

In terms of quality, due to the reduced budget harmony of scheduled service may be disrupted. 

Therefore, roles and responsibilities need to be documented and concisely briefed to the responsible stakeholders. 

Resource

The allocation of resources will be hampered. 

Therefore, a cost reduction strategy needs to be adopted in case of acquiring the resource. 

c. 

The changes can be addressed and implementation of change needs to begin with developing a clear objective with respect to the scenario. Thereafter, reconsideration of the previous plan with respect to the change request needs to be made and a new updated plan of action has to be formulated. Then, according to the updated plan, needful resources have to be allocated with a much more cost-saving approach (Ma and Rong, 2022). The projects are mainly influenced due to poor communication approach thus effective communication approach needs to be developed with respect to planning, Identifying, executing and on boarding. 

Thus, it can be stated that changes have been made through the reduction of the workforce thus revised plan of action need to be performed. The SOW and WBS of the project have been updated and every stakeholder has been assigned a detailed role and responsibility. 

  • Development of objective
  • Planning with respect to change 
  • Revise planning of resources
  • Revise Communication
  • Manage resistance
  • Continuous improvement 

d. 

The formulation of service time has a critical role in terms of meeting the objective and quality of service with respect to the event. The musical event has been scheduled on Sunday and Saturday thus specific hours of the event on each day need to be formulated. This type of change is essential with respect to the reduced budget in terms of claiming a quality service. On the other hand, for the side of event management organization, a cost-cutting strategy over the planning process of budget needs to be formulating (Sami et al. 2022). This can help though retaining the maximum level of profit by the organization with respect to the event. 

Besides that, resistance factors need to be also addressed for the mitigation of issues due to reduced budget. Thus, internal stakeholders of event organizers have to make a report of the risk associated with the event. This has a major role in terms of managing the risk during the execution of the project. 

2.a.

Deliverable 

The project can be effectively performed through accurate and effective planning thus multiple documents of the project plan can be delivered to the council. Therefore, any types of documents with respect to the event seek by the council need to be delivered with immediate effect. The functional and non-functional constraints associated with the need to be recognised and functional capabilities need to be delivered. Besides that, the feasible requirement of events needs to be also accurately addressed and delivered. 

Requirement 

The requirements have been categorised into two distinguished categories such as functional and non-functional requirements. The functional requirement reflects final deliverable features such as satisfied service over the event. Thus, understanding the needs of the council has a major role in terms of delivering an accurate and concise service. 

b. I. 

The successful and profitable compilation of any project has been relied on with an explicit level of planning and documentation of every factor associated with the project. However, it has been observed that an undocumented approach to the changes of any project may result in poor quality outcomes, financial loss and loss of reputation. Each and every change in a project need to be noted and contrasted with the budget and project plan and lack of such activity might result in cost overrun (Kerzner, 2022). Due to cost overrun, organizers of projects may retain a low level of profit margin and sometimes this type of scenario leads to financial loss. 

Besides that, operational inefficiencies during the execution of the project can be noticed that hampers the reputation of the organizer. Along with that meeting deliverables, factors of the event become critical with respect to the objectives of the event. 

b.II. 

The issues aligned with an undocumented approach need to be addressed with the implementation of documentation practice. Therefore, changes need to be documented and revised planning, allocation of resources, and new SOW and WBS need to be formulated. Along with that due to the changes susceptible risks also need to be addressed and documented over the risk matrix. This can help during the arrival and mitigation of risk in terms of effective compilation of any particular event (Barron and Barron, 2022). It has been explored that documentation of changes that occurred in any project helps to address and reduces the risks associated with any project. Hence, the success rate of the concerned project can be increased with such type of initiative. 

3. a. 

The scope management issues have been recognised by contrasting the project plan and deliverable factors with respect to the project objective. Due to the reduction of budget, a major issue has been recognised with the change request and this became a critical challenge for the project holders. Besides that, the issue of time with respect to the change request also made a critical scenario for the organization in terms of delivering effective service. 

However, those issues can be resolved through the adoption of accurate planning and execution of the project. Thus, issues with time constraints need to be addressed from the period of the project planning phase. Therefore, an accurate breakdown of workflow through WBS based on the event activity needs to be performed. Besides that, it can be recommended that the operations of the project need to be scheduled in a systematic and sequence-based manner (Kerzner, 2022). On the other hand, a recommendation for issues of change requests with respect to the budget can be made through a budget tracking or monitoring approach. Due to such an approach, issues of over budget can be effectively monitored and needful intervention can be made. 

b.

A significant lesson has been gained through the compilation of concerned event projects such as the change request process, the role of documentation and many more. It has been learned that based on the objective of an event or project, planning and management of operations need to be formulated. Along with that change requests also need to be documented and revisions of planning need to be formed (Arefazar et al. 2022). However, based on the learning a few recommendations have been contemplated below.

  •  Understanding the need for an event based on that planning need to be contemplated.
  • The objective need to be met with a deliverable in terms of gaining project success.
  • Documentation and budget monitoring are essential for retaining the profitability of a project. 

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