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Reference in APA 7th Style

Question.1 :-  According to the article, what is the interesting observation or question that motivates the investigation?

(In a journal article this is usually found in the first or second paragraph. If it is not stated explicitly, what do you think it is? Give a non-technical explanation, like you were explaining it to a family member who does not study psychology.)

The topic is based on applied cognitive psychology, and evidence of alcohol which put an interest in the investigation of the topic. The alcoholic is described as a loan or gunpoint. It targets the action of the faces of humans according to the author (Jores et al. 2019). Alcoholics control the memory as a weapon view, it provides the accuracy which is less than the response given. So, with an unusual witness of non-threatening related to the action of the face (Flowe et al. 2019). How to reduce the consumption of alcohol as it may lead to much damage to humans. That makes an interesting point for investigating reducing the consumption of alcohol.

Question.2 :- On the basis of the reviewed literature, what reasons do the authors give for why their study needs to be done?

As alcohol affects a greater amount of portion of the brain or in any part of the body. This includes the problem of cerebral learning and fluency of processing with speed, working memory, processing of spatial, solving problems, and impulsivity according to the author (Hagsand et al. 2022). As consumption of alcohol increases and its effects on the human body. Alcoholics may lead to depression, psychosis, anxiety, and even lead to behavior of antisocial. These symptoms last for weeks that occur in a disorder of psychiatric frank for mimic. These are reasons that are given by the author for studying the concepts.

Question.3 :- State the independent variable(s) and whether they are between-subjects or within-subjects variables.

The independent variable is the effect with analysis of the correction of the performance oif the faced memory after the consumption of the alcohol (Davis et al. 2021). That participant in the significance of no weapon which higher. The sober face based on the memory signifies the weapon group is more accurate for remembering the data of armed hair color assailants. The interaction suggested that the presence of the gun drew all its attention toward the face that is targeted according to the author (Altman et al. 2018). When there is an absence of the gun, the face that is targeted moves to the silent feature which is a visual stimulus with the alcohol group where there is nothing better for remembering.

State the dependent variable(s)

The dependent variables is based on the participants of alcohol which lead to the intoxication level where the alcoholic group was around 0.08 percent. It was the editing of the stimulation sequence that lead to the weapon group according to the author (Parker et al. 2022). The weapon group has concurred around 6 s on the view of the gun and the face of the perpetrators (Casell et al. 2018). The scene has drawn a dramatic condition to evaluate all the influences relating to the stress of emotion, which lead to the intoxication of alcohol.

Question.4 :- State the hypothesis or hypotheses of the research in terms of the IV(s) and DV(s)

(e.g., the reaction time will be shorter for participants in the blue group than the purple group.)

The usual hypothesis is always supported by the attention of the evidence for surprising the threatening objective by the actor of the scene. It is always possible that the weapon of the penetrators is always triggered by the stress of defensiveness response that leads to the witness of narrow attention toward the objective of threatening according to the author (Oscar-Berman et al. 2019). The process of blocking is less important than the stimuli peripheral. Larger identification faces the crime that is mocked by the viewer which is carried forward by the perp

Question.5 :- Fill in the details of the following methodological elements and explain the reasons why the authors chose each one

(If the reason is not stated explicitly, what implicit reasoning have the authors provided?)

a) the participants: The participants are 93 ranging from the age of 18 to 54. Most of the graduate students are recruited from around the world. The amount that is compensated is 10 payments, by the 19 psychology of undergraduates.

b) the sample size(s): That received a credit course the sample size was prior to power analysis

c) the stimuli and experimental task(s): The task in which the participant completed all its tasks during the 5 minut time was based on the memory interval of retention. It has a series of six illustrations.

Question.6 :- What did the authors find?

(i.e., what were the results? There is often a summary of what was found at the beginning of the discussion.)

The author finds that the alcohol is intensified with the help of the witness of narrow attention given to a gunpoint the author ( Furnham, 2019). . On finding the data it is noticed that a concurred glimpse is mentioned in brief that armed the faces of perpetrators, with a weapon. The witness of intoxicated alcohol focuses on the counterparts sober. The effect of alcohol consumption and the outcomes from it (Meissner 2021). The damages which may occur during the consummation of alcohol.

Question.7 :- As a result of this study, what new knowledge has been gained about the aspect of human behaviour that was being investigated in the study?

(i.e., how do the authors interpret their results - what does it all mean?)

The new knowledge that is gained during the investigation of human behavior that is alcohol permits more attention viciously as the hair of the face region is growing during the encoding according to the author (Altman et al. 2019). They also explored the intoxication that influences the focus of the weapon. The change in the behavior is they want to consume more and more alcohol which leads to scalp gry, facial hair damage, and hair length. It is also seen as an effect on the memory of the human after consuming the alcohol which affects both external and internal facial features.

Question.8 :- Based on the authors’ interpretation of the results in the (General) Discussion section, list at least one suggestion of a study that could be done next to build our knowledge in this area.

(If the authors list a suggestion you can write that here, if not you will need to come up with your own.)

The interpretation of the author based on the result is among the viewers that are simultaneously focused on the faced weapon in the scene. In the context of serious striking the accurate to remember the perpetrator's features of the face than to the no weapon sober group according to the author (Boffo et al. 2019). It can be only speculated on the basis of the threatening to shoot a receptionist for an innocent concept that targets the male fascination on the view of the absent for those who are able to see the unarmed mundane regarding the laptop.


Jores, T., Colloff, M. F., Kloft, L., Smailes, H., & Flowe, H. D. (2019). A meta?analysis of the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on witness recall. Applied cognitive psychology, 33(3), 334-343.

Flowe, H. D., Humphries, J. E., Takarangi, M. K., Zelek, K., Karo?lu, N., Gabbert, F., & Hope, L. (2019). An experimental examination of the effects of alcohol consumption and exposure to misleading postevent information on remembering a hypothetical rape scenario. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 33(3), 393-413.

Hagsand, A. V., Evans, J. R., Pettersson, D., & Schreiber Compo, N. (2022). A survey of police officers encounters with sober, alcohol-and drug-intoxicated suspects in Sweden. Psychology, Crime & Law, 28(5), 523-544.

Furnham, A., 2019. Advertising: The contribution of applied cognitive psychology. Applied cognitive psychology, 33(2), pp.168-175

Meissner, C. A. (2021). “What works?” Systematic reviews and m eta?analyses of the investigative interviewing research literature. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 35(2), 322-328.

Altman, C., Compo, N. S., Hagsand, A. V., & Evans, J. R. (2019). State of intoxication: A review of the effects of alcohol on witnesses’ memory. Evidence-based investigative interviewing, 74-92.

Boffo, M., Zerhouni, O., Gronau, Q. F., van Beek, R. J., Nikolaou, K., Marsman, M., & Wiers, R. W. (2019). Cognitive bias modification for behavior change in alcohol and smoking addiction: Bayesian meta-analysis of individual participant data. Neuropsychology Review, 29(1), 52-78.

Davis, K. C., Neilson, E. C., Kirwan, M., Eldridge, N., George, W. H., & Stappenbeck, C. A. (2021). Alcohol-involved sexual aggression: Emotion regulation as a mechanism of behavior change. Health psychology, 40(12), 940.

Altman, C. M., Schreiber Compo, N., McQuiston, D., Hagsand, A. V., & Cervera, J. (2018). Witnesses’ memory for events and faces under elevated levels of intoxication. Memory, 26(7), 946-959.

Parker, P., Banbury, S., & de Rijk, L. (2022). Self-control or flourishing? A thematic analysis of experiences of alcohol users of The Rediscovery Process. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 20(4), 2382-2399.

Caselli, G., Martino, F., Spada, M. M., & Wells, A. (2018). Metacognitive therapy for alcohol use disorder: A systematic case series. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 2619.

Oscar-Berman, M., & Maleki, N. (2019). Alcohol dementia, Wernicke’s encephalopathy, and Korsakoff’s syndrome.

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