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Introduction - Associations between Quantitative and Qualitative Job Insecurity and Well-being
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Statistical tools are quite relevant to organization in order to carry out the research in effective way. Present report deals with analyzing associations between qualitative and quantitative job insecurity and well-being of employees in the banking sector of Belgium. Sample size is taken and sampling method is listed in the report along with advantages and disadvantages of the same. Furthermore, research design is also explained with merits and demerits.
Q1 Sample size
Is sample size adequate?
The current sample size chosen is 15000 employees from the banking sector of Belgium. The total employees are 69000 and as such, around 21 % of sample size is taken for conducting research of the sector regarding qualitative and quantitative aspect of job insecurity. The sample size is the representation of whole population which is chosen for conducting survey with much ease. This helps to identify all the views of workers by taking sample which is a representative of overall population with regards to employees. It provides clarity about perceptions of job insecurity in relation to both quantitative and quantitative elements in the best possible manner (Moulin, 2014).
Moreover, the sample size is necessary for conducting survey from employees in Belgium banking sector. It is important as practical impossible to collect data of each and every person and as such, sample becomes necessary for outlining research in the most economical way. This means that size is taken roughly 21 % which is adequate for extracting results with much ease. The main purpose of taking sample from entire population is that survey cannot be taken from whole universe and as a result, estimation is done with regards to entire demographics. Moreover, there are various advantages of sample size such as it saves time of the researcher, quick results can be attained in effective manner. Furthermore, fast and efficient information is extracted which help researcher to carry out results and as such, sample size is considered as a representative of whole data set.
The sample data collected of employees is reliable for analyzing qualitative and quantitative aspect of job insecurity. Moreover, it would be much expensive to collect opinions of every employees and as such, data is gathered about 21 % of employees with address provided by the banks having name, address and language of employees. Thus, online questionnaire was sent through mails of employees. Thus, it can be said that sample size taken for survey is necessary for extracting views of workers in effective manner. It is required as practically impossible for researcher to collect information from whole population and as a result, sample becomes necessary to outline results by saving time and costs involved in it.
Q2 Sampling method
Current sampling method and merits and demerits of the method
The current sampling method used by the researchersissimple random sampling technique. This method implies that a sample is taken from overall data set which is representative of whole population taken into consideration. This help to ascertain information and as such, data is collected on the basis of sample only. It is quite effective way of carrying out results without taking into account entire population present in the universe. The simple random sampling is used in conducting research of job insecurity in which each employee has equal probability of chosen in the sample. This means that 15000 employees are chosen as a sample from 65000 employees and as such, size of sample is random as each worker has equal possibility of included in the sample. This method is quite useful particularly population is large enough. The advantages and disadvantages are as follows-
- Simple random sampling method is useful in carrying out survey from large population. Moreover, it is not complicated like other methods such as stratified sampling and probability method which requires bifurcation of population into further sub populations. Thus, it is a reliable technique (What is Simple random sampling?. 2018).
- It is advantageous because no additional things or step is required to be taken in order to select population on the basis of particular elements to carry out research.
- This method is effective as biasness is not found as each member present in the population has equal opportunity to get selected in the sample.
- It is useful method and fair as well because selection of sample is based on random basis and each member could be chosen.
- Furthermore, sample selected from population is representative of whole data set considered in the sample. Moreover, this technique is time-saving one and provides reliable results with much ease. In simple words, it is economical method in carrying out research.
- Moreover, errors involved in the sample can be easily assessed by this method. It is suitable in analyzing data that inculcates usage of inferential statistics.
- The main demerit of simple random sampling is that it involves large quantum of errors as data is collected on random basis. Instead of this, stratified method of sampling should be used as less errors are included in it.
- This method does not use knowledge that is available with regards to population of universe. This produces unreliable information and hence, not concrete results can be extracted from this technique.
- Another disadvantage of this method is that it is not suitable when heterogeneous units of population is taken into account. This means that data should be homogenous nature only so that desiredresults can be generated. Thus, sample is required to have similar aspect of population to carry out results in the best possible manner.
The solution derived from the simple random method is unreliable when units available in the population is much dispersed and as such, concrete solution cannot be arrived. This is another demerit of sampling method (Pindyck and Rubinfeld, 2014).
- Furthermore, this technique do not have complete knowledge about the population and as such, reliability of information derived is not adequate and inaccurate results are extracted.
Q3 Measures of variables
Reliability and validity of measures
The reliability is important so that research conducted may be worthwhile and as such, study can be undertaken with much ease. In the particular research concerning to job insecurity of qualitative and quantitative aspect, various variables are carried out in order to test whether they can be measured appropriately and adequate results can be extracted with much ease. The variables taken in this research are age, gender, children of employees and other such elements so that reliability and validity of measures can be attained in the best possible manner. In relation to this, reliability means that how much consistent is measure of variables. There are various types of the technique such as test-retest reliability, internal reliability and inter-rater reliability. The first type means that researchers measure a construct and as such, they effectively assumes that in the future, results may be same as it is today. This means that reliability of the population can be assumed to be constant in the future as well. Thus, information is much reliable which is extracted from population of employees in banking sector.
Internal consistency means that all the responses from the units having same underlying perceptions and views should be correlated with one another. This means that employees having same responses with regards to qualitative and quantitative aspect of job insecurity should be correlated with one another. Quantitative element is linked to job continuation in the future while, qualitative aspect is related to threat of valued aspects such as working conditions or job content. On the other hand, inter-rater reliability means that significant judgment is passed by the observer. The reliability is extent to which various raters are consistent with regards to their individual judgments (Wildavsky, 2017).
Validity means that up to how much extent, measure of the variables are valid. It is in direct correlation to reliability as when a particular measure has appropriate internal consistency and test-retest type, this clearly shows that researchers are pretty much confident about the validity of variables under study. There are three types of validity such as face, content, criterion and discriminant validity. The first type states that the measure is based on face which is included in collecting sample as person would expect an adequate questionnaire with regards self-esteem. Content validity implies that extent to which measures should cover the interest of variables. In simple words, it is required in this aspect that if researcher defines two thoughts, then these should be included in the measurement of the same in research and as such, validity can be observed. While, criterion validity is based on responses of employees in relation to this research should be correlated with another variables which is termed as criteria that a person expect to be in correlation. Discriminant means that variable included in the sample are not in correlation with measures of variables (Senabre, Ferran-Ferrer and Perelló, 2018).
Q4 Data collection on social demographics
Purpose of collecting data
The main purpose of this research is to find associations between quantitative and qualitative aspect of job insecurity and well-being. Besides this, variables such as age, gender, educational level and extra income related data was gathered in order to test the reliability of in-depth research in the best possible manner. This is quite effective so that different aspects of control variables can be viewed at with much ease. It help to test the reliability aspect of research in effectual way. The elements such as educational level and extra income is carried out so that aspects related to job insecurity can be explained quite effectually.
This is required because the quantitative aspect is based on the educational level of employees which is in relation to research under study. Furthermore, it age and income level, working conditions are also taken with a view to clarify that research outcome can be carried out in the best possible manner. Social demographics are used in this research so that control variables can be correlated with these elements. Thus, the correlation may be seen in such variables. Thus, they are used in carrying out better and concrete results.
Q5 Research design
Current research design and enumerating positive and negatives of research design
The current research design is descriptive one as each and every element of data is gathered such as working conditions, employment conditions, job content and social relations which are gathered from qualitative aspect. On the other hand, insecurity of job in future and in reverse such as employees are sure to keep up job are taken as quantitative aspect (Putrana and Kariati, 2018). Thus, it can be said that it is descriptive research design in the case study of Belgium banking sector.
Positives of descriptive research design
- This is useful for carrying out research in future as well because variables can be easily identified and tested.
- It help to gather in-depth information of the research topic in effectual manner. The surveys made by gathering data can be helpful for banking sector to assess needs and demands of employees in effective way.
Negatives of descriptive research design
- Descriptive research is not useful for making correlation between variables. Moreover, biasness may be inculcated by the researcher which leads to unreliability in data gathered and as such, accuracy is lost.
- Another negative aspect of descriptive research design is that variables cannot be manipulated and as such, experts states that statistical analysis cannot be implemented in this method.
Hereby it can be concluded that objective of research should be cleared so that concrete results can be attained in the best possible manner. The sample size should be taken in relation to the population size so that research can be conducted without any errors. Further, purpose of research must be stated and as such, solutions may be attained. Research design should be taken which must be relevant to the problem. Thus, it can be said that research is important aspect in arriving at concrete solution to issue.
Books and Journals
Moulin, H., 2014. Cooperative microeconomics: a game-theoretic introduction. Princeton University Press.
Pindyck, R. S. and Rubinfeld, D. L., 2014. Microeconomics.
Putrana, I.W. and Kariati, N.M., 2018, April. An Increase In Literate Statistics,(Statistical Reasoning And Statistical Thinking Through The Development Of Teaching Materials And Assessments Based E-Learning. In Proceedings (Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 28-35).
Senabre, E., Ferran-Ferrer, N. and Perelló, J., 2018. Participatory design of citizen science experiments. Comunicar. 26(54).pp.29-38.
Wildavsky, A., 2017. Speaking truth to power: Art and craft of policy analysis. Routledge.
What is Simple random sampling?. 2018 [Online] Available Through: <https://accountlearning.com/simple-random-sampling-definition-advantages-disadvantages/>