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Assignment 2: Physiological Changes Occur At The Cellular Level In The Human Body Assignment Sample

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Introduction: Physiological Changes Occur At The Cellular Level In The Human Body

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Physiological changes refer to changes in normal function of the living organisms and all cells are capable of experiencing changes due to ageing (Jîtc? et al. 2022). This is followed by the cells becoming larger and unable in terms of dividing and multiplying. It also includes changes in elevation of pigmentation and fats inside the cell structure alongside losing the ability to properly function (Yang et al. 2022). The physiological changes in the case of cell structure also consists of losing cell turnover along with reducing the overall functions of mucous membranes and wasting of cachexia and skeletal muscle mass. This is followed by experiencing changes in the form of increasing atherosclerosis rate which leads towards decreasing vascular compliance and contributing towards the visibility of ageing on the body (Jîtc? et al. 2022). The following context is intended to address the identified systems such as cardiovascular (CV system) along with hepatic (HS) and renal systems (RS) in terms of describing physiological changes and its impact towards cardiovascular disease (CVD) for the older population.


Physiological changes occur at the cellular level in the human body

Physiological changes happen with ageing and it has a strong impact on all organ systems in the body. These changes consist of decreasing cardiac output along with increasing blood pressure, impaired gas exchange as well as reduction of vital capacity and slow rate of exploratory flow (Amorim et al. 2022). On the other hand, ageing also impacts on reduction of creatinine clearance along with reduction of creatinine production that impacts on the body's functionalism. This is followed by progressive elevation of blood glucose along with altering mobility patterns in the case of gastrointestinal system (Brunet et al. 2022). It also affects increasing chances of atrophic gastritis for the older people along with altered hepatic metabolism of medication which are considerably common in the age group of elderly people. In addition, epidermis of the skin starts being affected due to the loss of collagen and that results elderly people to lose their toned skin and elasticity. This is followed by losing lean body mass with a constant ageism and it has a strong impact on the atrophy of muscle cells in the human body.

Cardiovascular system (CV)

In the case of the CV system, it can be stated that this system is contemplated to play a crucial role that helps in blood pumping all over the body. This is followed by identifying various response systems to the stimuli along with pointing out the amount of blood that is carried by the vessel in order to continue the system (Martens et al. 2022). This specific system consists of heart, veins along with arteries as well as capillaries. The heart and vessels are considered to play a crucial role in terms of working together in an intricate manner that helps in the providence of adequate blood flow for the parts of the body (Sharma et al. 2022). The maintenance of regulating CV is continued by a myriad of stimuli that consists of changes of blood volume along with hormones, electrolytes as well as osmolarity. This is followed by maintaining medications, adrenaline glands along with kidneys and many more. The concept of parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems are contemplated to play a crucial role here in terms of associating the regulation of the CV system.

On the other hand, while addressing the involvement of the organ system, the primary organ that is connected with the identified system is Heart and has the specific role of pumping blood throughout the vessels. It also helps in pumping blood directly into arteries such as the aorta of pulmonary arteries (, 2023b). In addition, there are two significant arteries that are associated with blood circulation which are "left main coronary artery (LMCA) along with right coronary artery (RCA)". While the former is associated with circulation of blood in the left side of heart muscle by "left ventricle and left atrium", the latter is associated with the right side of the heart by the bunch of sinoatrial nodes (, 2023a). The primary function of the CV system refers to two fundamental loops in the form of systemic circulation as well as pulmonary circulation. This is followed by circulating adequate amounts of blood throughout different body parts. However, the primary function relies on pulmonary circulation in terms of allowing oxygen to mix with blood which is known as oxygenation, the systemic circulation helps with reaching that oxygen related blood as well as nutrition to every part of the body (, 2023).

Due to ageing, the prominent change that is noticeable in the case of CV system refers to the increasing stiffness of larger arteries including RCA and LMCA and the situation is known as arteriolar sclerosis which is considered to be accountable for the hardening of these arteries (Bhasin et al. 2022). This factor has several health impacts such as lower blood flow through the arteries and causing high blood pressure conditions d as Hypertension. On the other hand, it also has an impact on the heart which is considered the natural pacemaker system of the body with the aim of continuing control of heartbeat (Rezabakhsh et al. 2022). The ageing has an impact on developing fibrous tissues in different pathways in the heart including pulmonary and systemic circulation and results in fat depositions. It is also followed by Sinoatrial nodes losing its cells and that impacts on RCA functions alongside includes significant changes in heart rate (Krzyzaniak & Fatehi Hassanabad, 2022). It also includes changes in heart tissue in the form of increasing tissue mass. This results in increasing the size of the heart, especially the left ventricle that causes thickening of heart tissue. This factor has a crucial impact on the amount of blood that can be held by the heart as it increases the overall heart size and reduces the chamber for holding blood in the heart and results in decreasing the rate of blood filling heart for the further process (Liccardo et al. 2022). Besides, a normal change that occurs at the cellular level in the heart refers to lipofuscin. This is an ageing pigment that affects the cardiac myocytes and has a crucial impact on the age-related macular degeneration in the body (Golub et al. 2022). This is followed by changes in the direction of the blood flow as well as valve stiffness among the older population.

On the other hand, in the case of addressing changes in the blood vessels, the receptors which are known as baroreceptors become less active with ageing. This is considered significant in terms of monitoring blood pressure as well as making proper changes in order to maintain blood pressure for the person while doing activities and changing positions (Huang et al. 2022). This is also considered another reason for the older people to have orthostatic hypotension and causes issues of falling blood pressure and dizziness due to the low blood flow in the brain. With ageing, the capillary walls get thicker and lower the exchange rate of nutrients and blood wastage alongside damaging connective tissues of the blood vessel wall (Marche et al. 2022).

Hepatic and renal system (HS and RS)

The hepatic portal system is considered a Venus system that helps in returning blood from the digestive tract and the spleen to the liver before the blood returns to the heart (Huntv et al. 2022). This system is considered a significant part of the body that helps in collecting blood from the intestine and passes it to the liver which helps in absorption of food and controlling blood nutrients. Furthermore, these substances are forwarded to the kidney portal system with the aim of filtering blood by renal glomeruli as well as passes it towards peritubular plexus (Nunes et al. 2022). The important organs which are associated with the HS refer to the gallbladder along with spleen, pancreas as well as stomach, small and large intestine (Tian et al. 2022). The organs of RS include kidney, renal pelvis as well as ureters along with bladder and urethra. The fundamental functions of the RS refer to removal of waste product around side medicines and balancing bodies fluid as well as a variety of electrolytes. This is followed by releasing hormones in terms of controlling blood pressure as well as controlling the production of the red cells (Tian et al. 2023).

Due to ageing, the psychological changes that happen in RS refer to decreasing kidney tissues as well as the capability of functioning kidneys in the form of reducing filtering units which is known as nephrons and the power of nephrons to filter waste materials from the blood (Tian et al. 2023). While the circulation factor of RS relies on the supply of blood to the kidneys along with managing cardiac output up to 20% (Farrell et al. 2022). It also increases the risk of kidney and bladder issues in the form of bladder control, leakage of urine, incontinence as well as urinary retention alongside the development of chronic kidney disease (CKDs). Besides it can also be stated that ageing is considered a significant factor that is associated with crucial changes of structure and function of the kidneys. In the case of macro structural level, ageing has a significant impact on decreasing kidney cortical volume along with elevating the roughness of the organ surface and the number as well as the size of the renal cysts over the age (Nakladal et al. 2022). This also includes addressing the impact on the primary function of the kidneys in the form of altering renal morphology as well as declining functions such as excretion of waste and balancing fluids. It is followed by acceleration of chance of forming kidney stones along with the risk of other kidney diseases.

On the other hand, the ageing related symptoms in regards to the liver cell refers to the changes in volume along with polyploid nuclei as well as accumulations of dense bodies which is known as lipofuscin inside the liver cells (Braude et al. 2023). It also includes the reduction of the area in endoplasmic reticulum and declining the overall number of liver cells and dysfunction of mitochondria. Another physiological change that causes at the stage of HS sheds light on the elevation of portal vein pressure along with impaired synthetic functions as well as electrolytes imbalance and malnourishment (Rekatsina et al. 2022). Besides, ageing is considered a significant factor that enhances the overall vulnerability of developing acute liver injury and elevated the cancer of fibrotic responses. This is followed by the association with the severity of the liver condition along with poor prognosis in relation to different liver diseases such as “non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis C and liver transplantation” (Rekatsina et al. 2022).

Impact of changes in regards to CVD

CVD for CV system

CVD is considered a general term that helps in describing the issues of the heart at the blood vessels along with addressing challenges regarding blood flow to the heart, brain or muscle. It also includes the build-up of blood clots along with fatty plaques inside arteries and leading towards hardening and narrowing arteries known as atherosclerosis (Cium?rnean et al. 2022). The fundamental symptoms of the CVD conditions referred to dizziness, fainting along with fatigue, shortness of breath and irregular heartbeat with swallowing legs, ankles and feet's, known as oedema (Savedchuk et al. 2022). In 2022, the estimations of the population suffering from CVD refers to 571000 with the age over 18 and over and addressing approximately 2.9% of the adult population (, 2023). This is followed by the prevalence of heart failure for 1 to 2% of the population alongside issues of heart and vessels for approximately 50 to 75% of the population who are prone to receiving death within the 5 years of diagnosis and hospital care process (, 2023).

In terms of addressing the impact of physiological changes at the cellular level of the CV system it can be stated that it impacts the older people with lower amounts of pumping blood and making it harder for the blood vessels to maintain pressure and exchange nutrients properly (Khraishah et al. 2022). The common issues regarding the identified problem refers to "angina along with abnormal heart rhythm as well as anaemia, atherosclerosis and congestive heart failures". This is followed by "high blood pressure alongside orthostatic hypotension and heart valve disease and chances of transient ischemic heart attack".

In the case of addressing angina, it can be stated that this is commonly known as chess pain and it generally happens due to the heart muscle not accepting enough oxygen enriched blood. This is followed by temporary reduction of blood flow to the heart muscle along with causing shortness of breath (SoB) and an increasing chance of heart attack (Sanchis-Gomar et al. 2022). Angina is also considered a symptom that sheds light on the uncomfortable feeling of blood flow to the heart along with reduction of exchanging nutrients. This can be caused due to the thickening of blood vessels and is considered a sign of an issue in regards to the CVD. In addition, abnormal heart rhythm which is known as arrhythmias and this condition is also linked to the risk of disease of coronary arteries and is capable of causing death (Münzel et al. 2022). This condition is also considered to be associated with the increasing risk of blood clot and the break of these clots is capable of damaging blood flow to the heart and brain. This results in elevating the chance of stroke and causing issue of CVD.

Apart from that, the chances of anaemia is high in regards to malnutrition as well as chronic disease, blood loss from the GI tract and many more. However, in the case of CVD complications, its impact is considered worse factors to shed light on the hyperdynamic state along with overloading volume as well as cardiac dilations (, 2023b). It also consists of valvular failure as well as heart failure due to the increasing cardiac output. Besides, resting cardiac output is elevated during the declination of haemoglobin concentration up to 10g/ dL or lower which indicates the chances of CVD (Konduracka & Rostoff, 2022). On the other hand, anaemia also increases the chance of morbidity as well as mortality for the CVD patients as it showcases the sign of hypoxia and elevated risks of cardiac output.

Apart from that, atherosclerosis highlights the hardening of arteries and it generally occurs due to the deposition of fatty plaques. It has a severe impact on narrowing and blocking blood vessels and increasing the chances of high blood pressure (hypertension) along with heart attack (Konduracka & Rostoff, 2022). This is a dominant cause of CVD that is capable of causing "myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure, stroke and clarification". Other risk factors for this medical condition refers to the presence of high blood cholesterol along with triglycerides as well as "hypertension, smoking, obesity, diabetes and many more" which are capable of causing CVD at the old age.

On the other hand, congestive heart failure is considered a common issue among the older population and it showcases the lack of oxygen for muscle and brain tissues. It also includes other medical conditions such as heart inflammation, cardiomyopathy and irregular heartbeat which are capable of causing CVD and impact in the form of heart attack, stroke as well as heart failure and peripheral artery disease (Aljafary & Al-Suhaimi, 2022). Apart from that, the primary issues regarding the CVDs are increasing chances of blood clot along with deep vein thrombosis along with thrombophlebitis, peripheral vascular issues, varicose vein ruptures and aneurysm (Ozyildirim & Baltaci, 2023).

CVD for HS and RS

In the case of CKD patients, Australia has approximately 17 to 21% of diagnosed cases along with the known case of 27700 people with kidney failure who have already received "kidney replacement therapy" in this country (, 2023). The elderly along with indigenous communities and people from the remote areas in Australia are prevalent in case of developing CKD along with facing difficulties accessing treatment such as transplant and dialysis (Kanejima et al. 2022). Besides, approximately 6 million Australians suffer from chronic liver disease along with an annual death of 7000 due to the increased alcohol consumption, hepatitis C and obesity related fatty liver diseases at the old age (, 2023). Apart from that, it can also be addressed that the presence of liver disease among patients increases the chance of developing CVD and impacts coronary heart issues and low rate of heart beat. This is followed by changes in expression of collagen isoforms which occur in ventricular heart tissues due to the presence of Liver Cirrhosis (Alchin et al. 2022). On the other hand, issues in the liver are capable of causing impaired ventricular ejection of fraction due to high stress factors and thus increasing heart rate. This affects the overall CV system along with reducing myocardial contractility among the patients with liver Cirrhosis and increasing chances of developing CVD (Alchin et al. 2022). Apart from that, heart failures are capable of provoking liver damage. However, in the case of CKD patients, they have an increased risk of elevated artery issues, heart failure and low heart beats which often lead to sudden cardiac arrest and death (Alharthi et al. 2022). This is followed by changes in blood pressure due to the presence of CKD and causes angina and other CV related issues.


In terms of concluding the following context, it can be stated that ageing is a natural process that has significant impact in the case of causing issues in cellular level and in the case of addressing physiological changes. This context has successfully discussed the physiological changes at the cellular level for the older people along with identifying two specific body systems in regards to the identified long term disease condition. It includes shedding light on the CV system due the ageing and changes that create issues along with its impact on the CVD. Similarly, for the HS and RS system, the impact of ageing on the functions along with its impact in the case of CVD have been addressed alongside the prevalence of the disease condition in the selected country, Australia.


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