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Unit-4 Management And Operations
This report will cover the analysis in the context of Clayton Crown Hotel as the organisation. It will discuss the functions of managers and the role of leaders in the organisation according to different situations. It will also discuss various theories for the leadership styles according to situations and contingency along with their strengths and weakness for the organisation. In another next part, it will cover a presentation on the management and operations which will discuss what operations management is and what are key approaches to it. The great leaderNicolae Ceausescu and his biography will be discussed along with the roles and function of leaders and managers in operational management. After that, it will cover the environmental factors that affect the business values of Clayton Crown hotel.
P1: Define and Compare the different roles and characteristics of a leader and a manager
M1: Analyse and differentiate between the role of a leader and function of a manager by effectively applying a range of theories and concepts.
LO2 Apply the role of a leader and the function of a manager in given contexts
P2 Examine examples of how the role of a leader and function of a manager apply in different situation contexts.
Working as an HR manager in Clayton Crown hotel, there are many situations that have been faced by managers and leaders. Following table will define the function of manager and role of leader in different situations faced in Clayton Hotel (Gourmet marketing, 2017):
Function of Manager
Role of Leader
Customers not satisfied with the services as their expectations are changed
In this situation, the manager has to make plans and strategies so that the hotel management can provide the services according to the expectations and demand by using current booming technologies like the use of Wi-Fi etc.(The business management ideas, 2019)
The leader will motivate the team for working according to the plan and also give clarification of the aims and objectives of this plan.
Employees don’t know about the latest technology and its uses
For this, the manager has to organise some training sessions regarding the introduction to new technologies and procedure of their use
A leader will guide his followers how to use these technologies and also explain to them how these technologies will help in improvement
Employees have to do long shifts with uneven hours
This problem can be solved by managing staff in which the manager will make a proper plan for staff so that the employees will get shift of even and regular hours
In along regular working hours shift, the employees get stressed out which results in frustration so the leader will get motivate them and encourage them for their duty
P3 Apply different theories and models of approach, including situational leadership, systems leadership and contingency.
HR manager should have knowledge of leadership theories as they help in management at Clayton Crown Hotel. There are many theories and models related to leadership. Some of them are (Your article library, 2019):
- House’s Path Goal Theory: Robert House gave this theory which is a part of situational contingency theory. According to this theory, the main part of a team is a leader who is responsible for making path for his followers to achieve goals. This path can be made by creating a good work environment, proper guidance and motivation regarding goal achievement. This can be the best option of leadership at Clayton Crown Hotel but it requires a talented leader and good followers.
- Fiedler’s Contingency theory: According to this theory, there is no fixed leadership style, the leader should have skills so that he can act and take decisions according to the situation. Fiedler also stated that some leaders focus on task and some on relations.
- Hersey-Blanchard Situational Model: This model of Hersey and Blanchard based on the empowerment of followers according to their maturity level. This theory is helpful when the followers are experienced and have a good level of knowledge. They can make the leader take decisions according to them and can also guide the leader by their knowledge and expertise. In Clayton Crown hotel, the chance of following this approach is very little as the number of experienced followers required should be high.
M2 Assess the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches to situations within the work environment.
All the models and theories stated above needs at least one expert either it can be a leader or the followers. Apply House’s Path-Goal Theory in Clayton Crown hotel will give very fast results and goals can be achieved easily as the leader is the only one who has to make decisions for the team and have to take all risks. So it becomes very easy for followers to just follow the path that will lead to the goal. But the drawback of this theory is that it needs a very skilled and knowledgeable leader who have god decision making skills because if he makes mistake then all team have to suffer from the circumstances.
And on another hand, Hersey-Blanchard Situational Model will help in giving better quality results as the decisions and suggestions are given by well experienced and talented followers. But sometimes the leader has to face conflicts between his followers or with followers so this can result in bad bonding of team.
D1 Critically analyse and evaluate the different theories and approaches to leadership in a given context.
According to an analysis done related to the theories of leadership, there is not a particular leadership style which can be used to lead a team. It all depends on different situations and conditions. In Clayton Crown hotel, the best theories that can be used by the leaders are Fiedler’s Contingency theory and House’s Path Goal Theory because these theories will give leaders to take decisions for the organisation and also the leader can show his skills for handling various situations and problems (Business jargons,2019). Using Fiedler’s Contingency will help the leader to set a relation between the situation and his leadership skill to take decisions. Also, the House’s Path Goal Theory will help in making quick decisions and a conflict free environment in the organisation.
LO3 Demonstrate an appreciation of the role leaders and managers play in the operations function of an organization.
Operations management can be defined as the process of operating all the activities that take place in the organisation starting from the raw materials to the completion of product. This is the process in which the planning, arranging and supervising take places. The use of operations management in the organisation is to increase the product or service quality and profit ofthe organisation (Cleverism, 2019).
P4: Explain the key approaches to operations management and the role that leaders and managers play
The operational manager of the organisation has to focus on many aspects for the operations management like the communication system in the organisation, the project planning, project staffing, project organising, project controlling etc. Along with this, the operational manager also has to focus on the use of technology for the processing of activities inside and outside of the organisation. He also has to consider the rules and policies of the organisation so that the product or services processed in the market are satisfying the requirements. The Operational manager uses many methods like total quality management and six sigma so that the quality check can be done and the quality of the product can be assured. TQM is the method used by OM to insure the quality and improve the quality of product and services. Six sigma is also like TQM as it also improves the quality of the product by reducing the defects and in the product.
For the implementation of the operations management system in Clayton Crown Hotel, both leaders and manager have to perform their role very well as they are the one who makes plans and prepares strategies for the organisation. Also, they have to assure that the resources available in the organisation are used efficiently, the resources can be employees, supplies, budget etc. For the better working of the management system, they have gotthe support of the team and followers which can be achieved by motivating them and guiding them. To improve and train the employees, they also have to conduct various training and seminar sessions.
Nicolae Ceausescu was a dictator and leader of Communist Romania, who was born on 26 January 1918 in Scorniceti, Romania and sentenced to death on 25 December 1989. He was the former president of Romania and ruled over it for approx 24 years. He also served as Brigadier general in Army in the year 1945. He was the successive ruler of Romania Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej. He became followed the orthodox communist way for a ruling (Biography, 2018).
P5: Explain the importance and value of operations management in achieving business objectives
The operations management is an important part of any organisation whether it is Clayton Crown Hotel or any other industry. The operations management will help the organisation to improve its customer services as customers are the main focus for every industry so they need to be treated well and satisfied with the organisation's product and services. It will also lead to an increase and profit and income by adding business values from values aspects like it will add more customers from its product quality. The use of operations management will help in fully use of all the resources including human resources too, so the wastage of resources is decreased and the invested cost may also reduce. The operations system bound the hold organisation together so the function of the organisation also improves
M3: Evaluate how leaders and managers can improve efficiencies of operational management to successfully meet business objectives.
The main business objectives of Clayton Crown hotel are to provide best services to its customers, to increase the business in different places and to make the good reputation of the hotel in mind of customers and society. These all objectives can easily obtained by the help of an operations management system in the assistance of manager and leaders. The leaders and managers can improve the efficiency of operations management by doing a proper arrangement of flow of supplies, finance, resources etc. so that managers can check everything and control it easily. The next thing is by demanding the supplies only in the amount required from the suppliers so that the issue of returning the supplies can be reduced and one activity can be reduced from the list of managers and leaders. Use of a simple and same process for the same activities will help in ease of control. The other methods are the use of Total quality management in quality check of product and services.
D2: Critically evaluate application of operational management and factors that impact on the wider business environment
There are many applications of operational management that will help Clayton Crown hotel for adding business values. It will help the managers for making a better project management process like planning and scheduling of activities. It will improve the quality of product and services by various qualities check methods. Implementing operations management will help in managing the financial level and resources. It will also help in checking the policies and rules of suppliers for any guarantee purpose.
The factors affecting the environment of Clayton Crown Hotel are the influence of government and political parties in hotel management, the financial status of hotel related to its budget. Outside of the hotel, the image of the hotel and demand of services provided by the hotel also affect the environment. The technologies used by hotel for management and customers also play an important role. The legal work and policies are also external environment factors.
LO4: Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between leadership and management in a contemporary business environment
P6: Assess the factors within the business environment that impact upon the operational management and decision making by leaders and managers.
There are two types of environment that impact on the business environment of Clayton Crown Hotel. In the internal environment, the manager and leaders concern the points related to managing staff, creating a work culture and one of the main concern is money. The external factors are the competition in the market, economic condition of the society and market, customer demands of the services and product, the impact of suppliers and involvement of politics. The internal environment is almost in the hands of manager and leaders but the external environment cannot be controlled (Chrone, 2018).
M4: Analyse how these different factors affect the business environment and the wider community.
This internal environment is created by the participation of employees and management. So this will affect the work quality, manufacturing process of the organisation. The staff and culture are the part of internal environment so if the staff get stressed environment then this will affect the internal processing of the organisation like the product and services will get delayed or the quality is not satisfying. The other main and important part of the internal environment is budget of the organisation because if the budget is low then it will affect the demand of required resources and also chances of collapsing of the organisation will increase (Chrone, 2018).
The other one is external environment which covers the role of politics, competitors, customer demand, suppliers and the condition of economy. The political and government changes can also affect the environment of the organisation by a change in the cost of raw materials or market condition. If the organisation is not providing any unique services then the organisation has to face competitors that will result in loss of customers and suppliers. If the economy of the market and society get crashed then the prices fall down and no one can control it, it will result in a loss for the hotel (Chrone, 2018).
From the previous slides and analysis, it is clear that the use of operational management is a good option for the managers and leaders of Clayton Crown Hotel and also it will help in creating a good image. After analyzing the environmental impacts, the internal environment should be the main focus for improvement in quality and focusing on external environment let the managers know about demand of product in the market. For all these operations, leaders and managers have to play various roles for implementation of efficient operational management.
The above report covered the topics related to the functioning and role of managers and leaders in organisation, the theories of leadership styles like Path Goal theory, Contingency theory, etc. and their requirements and results. It also covered the operations management’s introduction and the key approaches for the implementation of it. It discussed the biography of Nicolae Ceausescu and highlights of his career and the role of leaders and managers in operations management. The methods of improving the efficiency of operations management were also discussed in the report. The environment also plays the role in business so this report also considered the impact of internal and external environment in the profit and business of Clayton Crown hotel.
- Business jargons, 2019. Fiedler’s Contingency Model [Online] Business jargons. Available at: https://businessjargons.com/fiedlers-contingency-model.html [Accessed on: February 27, 2019].
- Gourmet marketing, 2017. Top 6 Problems Hotel Managers Face[Online] Gourmet marketing. Available at:https://www.gourmetmarketing.net/top-6-problems-hotel-managers-face/ [Accessed on: February 27, 2018] [Accessed on: February 27, 2019]
- Your article library, 2019. Situational Contingency Theory of Leadership (With Diagram)[Online] Your article library. Available at: http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com/leadership/situational-contingency-theory-of-leadership-with-diagram/64024 [Accessed on: February 27, 2019]