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Introduction: Smart Engineering Systems

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Question 1


a) Difference between Smart IoT and WSNs

Difference between Smart IoT (Internet of Things) Systems and WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks)-

Smart IoT Systems


Smart Internet of Things (IoT) Systems enable communication and bunch of information exchange between devices and things by connecting them to the internet.

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are employed to track and gather information available physically or environmentally.

Smart Internet of Things generally contains fewer items than WSNs which are wired or wirelessly linked to the network.

Wireless Sensor Networks are usually available in the environment in the majority of tiny and fewer power sensors that communicate data wirelessly to a centralized base station.

In more usual situations, smart IoT systems are utilized to link a range of equipment and things.

Mostly wireless sensor networks are utilized with intention of tracking in complex or unsafe conditions.

The Internet of Things is created for general purposes like for any conditions related to networks.

Wireless sensor networks are mostly created for particular conditions.

The market of the Internet of Things is more full-fledged than WSNs’.

The market of Wireless sensor networks is not full-fledged like the IoT market, they are mostly still coming to light.

Smart Internet of things systems is mostly dynamic as they can be moved to different places and network connections while moving the things connected with the IoT systems.

Wireless Sensor Networks are mostly static as they remain constant in a certain location.

Smart Internet of Things Systems is mostly more extended and open than WSNs.

Wireless sensor Networks are mostly less extended and closed than Smart Internet of Things.

b) Effect of Internet address on IoT development

An “Internet protocol address” or “IP address” helps computer devices to give and take data. There are 4 types of “IP addresses” available in the network they are “public”, “private”, “static”, and “dynamic”. There are also different versions available for IP addresses among them IPv4 and IPv6 are actively in use in recent days (Bagdadee et al., 2020). The devices that consist of IoT and are under the control of a pre-assigned user by a service provider, are also assigned to a certain IP address for cooperation. IPv4 consists of 32-bit addressing and IPv6 is the developed version of IPv4 and consists of 128-bit addressing. So the more the addressing helps more combination of IP and helps more devices to connect to the network. The population of humans is increasing day by day, so the number of IoT devices also increasing. So the need for more IP addresses is increasing that's why IPv6 came but one day that will also be insufficient (Delsing et al. 2021). Due to increasing internet addresses, the security of IoT devices is one of the biggest issues. Developers need to be more concentrated on the issue. In the private network, this issue is not so big but for the public network, this issue is the reason behind trust issues.

c) Difference between CoAP and HTTP protocol



CoAP or Common Offer Acceptance Portal operation goes through UDP protocol

HTTP or HyperText Transfer Protocol operation goes through TCP protocol.

In the case of CoAP, the IPv6 layer of the network is used.

In the case of CoAP, the IP layer of the network is used.

CoAP usually holds up multicast.

HTTP usually does not hold up multicast.

The architecture used by CoAP is a rest (tree) architecture which is client-server and publish-subscribe based.

The architecture used by HTTP is a client-server architecture.

The connection of CoAP is not mandatory to be synchronous.

The connection of HTTP is mandatory to be synchronous.

d) Difference between Transportation layer and Application layer

Transport Layer

Application Layer

Transport layer usually connects the service to the next layer after taking that from the previous layer.

The application layer usually delivers the circulated data through the network.

The data which transports through the layer is called “Segments”.

The data which transports through the layer is usually a message.

The transport layer is the heart of an OSI model and the 4th layer of the model.

The application layer is the last layer of an OSI model.

The device for the transport layer is usually a firewall device.

There is no certain device for the application layer.

The transport layer only transfers the information and makes the connection between the network and the application layer.

The application layer displays the information to the users which come from the transport layer.

Question 2

a) Key security issues connected with smart systems

There are many risks behind becoming smart as the process is complex. The security of smart systems is one of the biggest common issues. Smart systems have a location tracking system that easily helps the attacker track users' location. Many people depend on smart systems and store many important data in that systems (Hachem et al. 2020). But sometimes due to cyber-attacks or technical failures, they lose the data from the system, and this data can easily be accessed by cybercriminals. Most smart devices are automated and designed to perform easily but sometimes this automation helps the hacker to hack the devices and gain access to the devices (Modu et al. 2020). Research shows that houses with smart systems are easily accessible to criminals and they mostly target those houses.

b) Advantages of giving security in IP layer

Internet security helps users or organizations in securing all the traffic of the applications without any need for modification in the application differently. IP security mainly provides detailed information about the internet and all the security services for the people who all are gathering and using the internet (Nižeti?, et al. 2019). It gives all the information of data authentication, the data sent by whom, the receiver, the data read or seen, and mainly if any changes have been made while processing the data or not. Internet security is the protection given to all users it holds confidentiality. It is a crime to reveal any information of the users until and unless it is needed, therefore, internet security is very important.

c) Comparison Between “Symmetric Key LWC Algorithm” and “Tiny Encryption Algorithm”

  • The symmetric key LWC algorithm is very fast and the tiny encryption algorithm is very slow.
  • The symmetric key LWC algorithm is mainly used in both encryption and decryption. But the tiny encryption algorithm is mainly used in encryption.
  • In the case of security, the symmetric key LWC algorithm is much safer than the tiny encryption algorithm.
  • In the case of cryptography the symmetric LWC algorithm is an older version and the tiny encryption algorithm is a newer version.
  • The symmetric key LWC algorithm helps in transferring data in bulk as it doesn’t take much time, but the tiny encryption algorithm takes more time.

d) Fog computing system

Fog computing system is a paradigm that mainly expands cloud services and computing to the network edge. Services provided by fog are very similar to clouds. Fog computing can also provide several services like managing end users, managing application services, storage, computing, and data processing. This fog computing system is mainly a decentralized system for data storage and application (Sofwan et al. 2020). In the diagram below, it can be seen that fog computing is being used as a middle ground between the end users and the cloud.

Figure 1: Fog computing paradigm

(Source: Self-made at

There are several characteristics of fog computing. These are location awareness and lower latency. The graphical representation system of fog computation mainly supports mobility because larger nodes are present in this system. The main task of this fog computing system is to deliver data to the end users and produce data for the end users. According to this task, in the image below, fog is present between the end user and the cloud.

There are several advantages of using fog computing in any system. This type of system can reduce the real size of data that is directly sent to the cloud. This type of system users can also minimize the usage of bandwidth consumption (Stylos et al. 2021). This type of system can also reduce the cost of cloud-based data storage and data processing systems. Using fog computation can also improve the response time of the whole system. In the diagram below, it can be seen that a single cloud computation block is divided into three fog computation blocks which are directly cooperating with the end users. The presence of such systems are reducing the response time and also enhances the efficiency of the system.

Question 3


a) Use Case Diagram for “Elevator software system”

Figure 2: Use Case Diagram of the Elevator Software System

(Source: Self-made at

The main and only user of the elevator is the passenger. There are many use cases available in the system. Floor Indicator which will show the current floor and the direction of the elevator and will help the passenger to see the current condition of the elevator. By pressing the floor button the user can ask for the elevator. When the elevator comes to the floor, the user will hear the sound of arrival (Tao et al. 2019). After that, the door will open and after a certain period will close. There are another three actors except for the passenger; they are three sensors. The Cable tension sensor helps to identify the elevator pressure and identify dangerous conditions. If a dangerous condition arrives it will stop the elevator. The other two sensors help to identify obstacles between doors.

b) Class diagram for “Elevator software system”


Elevator <-1:1-> Elevator Control

Door<-M:1-> Elevator Control

Elevator Button <-M:1-> Elevator Control

Floor Button <-M:1->Elevator Control

Sensors <-M:1-> Elevator Control

Sensors <-M:1-> Door

Figure 3: Class Diagram of the Elevator Software System

(Source: Self-made at

Elevator class consists of the current floor and direction. The elevator control class consists of floor number, position, and direction. The door class consists of open, close, and timer. The elevator button class consists of floor numbers only. The floor button class consists of floor no and direction. The senior class consists of the sensor and check.



  • Bagdadee, A.H., Zhang, L. and Remus, S.H., 2020. A brief review of the IoT-based energy management system in the smart industry. Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Computations in Engineering Systems, pp.443-459.
  • Delsing, J., 2021. Smart city solution engineering. Smart Cities4(2), pp.643-661.
  • Hachem, J.E., Chiprianov, V., Babar, M.A., Khalil, T.A. and Aniorte, P., 2020. Modeling, analyzing and predicting security cascading attacks in smart buildings systems-of-systems. Journal of Systems and Software162, p.110484.
  • Modu, F., Adam, A., Aliyu, F., Mabu, A. and Musa, M., 2020. A survey of smart hydroponic systems. Advances in Science, Technology and Engineering Systems Journal5(1), pp.233-248.
  • Nižeti?, S., Djilali, N., Papadopoulos, A. and Rodrigues, J.J., 2019. Smart technologies for promotion of energy efficiency, utilization of sustainable resources and waste management. Journal of cleaner production231, pp.565-591.
  • Sofwan, A., Sumardi, S., Ahmada, A.I., Ibrahim, I., Budiraharjo, K. and Karno, K., 2020, February. Smart greetthings: Smart greenhouse based on internet of things for environmental engineering. In 2020 International Conference on Smart Technology and Applications (ICoSTA) (pp. 1-5). IEEE.
  • Stylos, N., Fotiadis, A.K., Shin, D.D. and Huan, T.C.T., 2021. Beyond smart systems adoption: Enabling diffusion and assimilation of smartness in hospitality. International Journal of Hospitality Management98, p.103042.
  • Tao, F., Qi, Q., Wang, L. and Nee, A.Y.C., 2019. Digital twins and cyber–physical systems toward smart manufacturing and industry 4.0: Correlation and comparison. Engineering5(4), pp.653-661.
  • Tokody, D., Albini, A., Ady, L., Rajnai, Z. and Pongrácz, F., 2018. Safety and security through the design of autonomous intelligent vehicle systems and intelligent infrastructure in the smart city. Interdisciplinary Description of Complex Systems: INDECS16(3-A), pp.384-396.
  • Zheng, P., Wang, Z., Chen, C.H. and Khoo, L.P., 2019. A survey of smart product-service systems: Key aspects, challenges and future perspectives. Advanced engineering informatics42, p.100973.
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