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Introduction - Research Design Proposal Assignment
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Overview of the Study
Smoking cigarette is most dangerous human consumption which leads to death and creates harm to environment. Preventing smoking has become the major duty of manufacturers, government families and environmentalist (Romer, Ferguson and Peters, 2017). It is important for people to analyse the cause and effect of smoking cigarette as it is dangerous for the people who are consuming but is more dangerous for the people who are in surroundings. Further, the Cigarette Packing pictorial is the warning for the people to prevent them from consumption and to enhance their knowledge regarding improving habits and increasing impact of smoking to human body and environment. Thus, it has been analysed that there are various type of campaigning and conflicts in whcih the people focus on promoting the dangerous effects of smoking such as pictorial labelling but people who smokes regularly fees like the habit can be controlled and creates no harm to people around them.
- To ascertain the implications of Cigarette Packing warning labels on the people.
- To identify the relationship between Cigarette Packing pictorial warning and consumer behaviour.
- To evaluate the change in smoking rate after the warning represented on Cigarette Packing pictorial.
- To analyse the changes in behaviour of smokers after the Cigarette Packing pictorial warning labels.
- What are the implications of Cigarette Packing warning labels on the people?
- What is relationship between Cigarette Packing pictorial warning and consumer behaviour?
- What are changes in smoking rate after the warning represented on Cigarette Packing pictorial?
- What are the changes in behaviour of smokers after the Cigarette Packing pictorial warning labels?
Rationale of study
The ultimate motive behind conducting this research process is to analyse the impact of warning labels of cigarette on the people who smoke. It is important to determine the impact in order to evaluate the changing rate of smokers in country as the consumption of cigarette is the most harmful consumption. Apparently, it will aid in evaluating the positive and negative impact of smokers after the warning pictorial on the packet of Cigarette.
Scope of the study
Scope of the study is to determine the market and people reactions towards the warning pictorial over the packet of Cigarette. The research will help the scholar in determining the features, functions and motive behind printing of warning pictorial (Noar, Francis and Ribisl, 2017). Apart from this, the scope is to ascertain the relationship of warning labels on buyer's behaviour because it will aid researcher in evaluating the increasing positive and negative impact of pictorials on smokers.
Significance of the study
It is important to conduct this research in order to make people aware about the dangerous cause and effects of smoking on human body and environment (Hall and et.al., 2017). Further, it will assist in determining the impact of warning pictorial of Cigarette on people who smoke. Moreover, it is essential to evaluate the thinking of smokers and on smokers over the warning pictorial whether the earning is effective or needs to be modified.
Chapter 2: Research Methodology
Research methodology plays a vital role in conducting appropriate research process. IT comprises all the tools and techniques which required to conduct effective investigation. Research methodology in this study will comprise research philosophy, approaches, techniques, design, sampling and data collection (Different research methods,2017). These are the tools of methodologies which helps the scholar in conducting smooth process of collecting and analysing information. Further, this helps the investigator in developing critical understanding over the literature and collected data. Apparently, it is important for the scholar to make use of research tool and techniques to connect and evaluate the positive and negative impact of study which is based on exploring the impact of Cigarette Packing pictorial warning labels on the people.
Research philosophy assist the scholar in developing critical understanding over research topic. In this research process the researcher will aim at analysing and understanding the impact of pictorial label warning on cigarette packet by implementing the use of tools of research philosophy. There are two type of research philosophy that is positivism and interpretivism where positivism philosophy helps the investigator in drawing assumption on the basis of test conducted (Ormerod and Ulrich, 2013). Apparently, interpretivism the investigator aims at formulating suitable justification to research and collected data. It assists the person in developing wide understanding over research topic. Thus, in this research the researcher will use positivism philosophy as it will assist the person in formulating assumption over impact of pictorial labelling on smokers by analysing views of buyers. Further the researcher will implement the use of interpretivism to analyse the data presented in Literature which will aid the individual in determining actual results and improvement measures to implement changes in pictorial labelling.
In this research process scholar will focus on drawing assumption which will be based on primary data collected by researcher the information presented in literature. The research type of this project will be the combination of sources of information as the researcher will evaluate the current reaction of majority smokers on pictorial labelling and will analyse the information on relationship and theories on implication of pictorial labelling through literature review.
Research approach assist the investigator in deriving solution to the problems and research questions. Therefore, it is important for the scholar to make effective choice of research approach in order to end up making accurate solutions. Further, research approach are of two type that is inductive and deductive where inductive approach aims at driving solution from specific to general (Rubin and Babbie, 2016). Apparently, in deductive scholar aims at making general information to specific. It is the process of analysing and evaluating information to draw solution or assumption. In this research process, the scholar will make use of deductive approach in which it will evaluate the specific information available in literature and the data which will be collected through primary sources. This will help the investigator in determining pros and cons of pictorial labelling on consumer behaviours in order to draw hypothesis to make accurate solutions to research questions considering the objectives.
Research techniques are the base for entire research process, it helps the scholar in summarizing the collected information and data. Therefore, it is important for the person to make careful choice of research technique keeping in mind the implemented approaches and philosophies. There are two types of research techies that is quantitative ad qualitative where quantitative provides numerical and mathematics terms of collecting and summarizing information which is time consuming and is not reliable in every case (Sobh and Perry, 2016). However, qualitative technique is descriptive in nature and provides easy way to summarize and analyse information. Thus, in this restudy the researcher will make use of qualitative technique to determine the actual information which is related to research objective and questions which is to ascertain the relationship between pictorial warning labelling on cigarette packets with regard to consumer behaviour. Moreover, with the help of this technique the researcher will be able to determine the impact of pictorial warning on people specially smokers.
Research design is the tool which helps the study in determining right solution as per the research questions and objectives. It is the technique which provides base of arranging and collecting data. Implementing research design is the crucial part of research process therefore it is important for researcher to analyse the use of every design and then focus on implementing (Kumar, 2014). There are several types of research design that is explanatory, exploratory and descriptive. In descriptive design the researcher aims at analysing the information which is available in form of descriptive and further summarize it into descriptive way. However, the in exploratory design the researcher aims at evaluating information by exploring different sources. This assist the person in analysing various possible outcomes and alternatives to derive results. Thus, in this research process the researcher will make use of exploratory research design in which the person will evaluate the on analysing impact of Cigarette Packing pictorial warning labels on the people and the relationship of label warning with consumer behaviour.
Data collection is the most crucial part of research process as in this the researcher aims at sources from which the person will collect information on the research tittle which is ascertaining the impact of Cigarette Packing pictorial warning labels on the people. Generally there are two type of data collection methods which are used by scholar that is primary and secondary source where in secondary source the investigator focus on collecting information through governmental publications, newspaper, articles, books, magazines etc. (Rubin and Babbie, 2016). It assists the researcher in determining the past study on the research topic. However in primary research the researcher aims at collecting current information with the help of questionnaire, interview, focus group etc. It assists the person in collecting reliable information which is quite easy to be analysed. Thus, in this research process the scholar will conduct one to one interview of smokers and non smokers with the helps of questionnaire. It is the best way which will assist the investigator in identifying the implications of Cigarette Packing pictorial warning labels on the people. Hence, in questionnaire the researcher will formulate 10 questions keeping research objective ad questions as base. This will aid in determining the various prevention measures which can be established in order to control smoke consumption.
Sampling is another crucial part of research process as in this the investigator aims at determining group which will be source for analysing information as per research tittle that is exploring the impacts of Cigarette Packing pictorial warning labels on the people. In this scholar selects sources from large group like in case of secondary research the researcher targets and selects appropriate secondary sources to collect data. On the other hand in case of primary source the person selects group of people from large group in order to collect appropriate information. Sampling is of various types that is random, cluster, probability and non probability (Hogg, 2010). In this the researcher will make use of random sampling method in which the person will aim at targeting people who are viable as per the research objectives and questions. Thus, in this as the primary source the researcher will target 20 people among them 10 will be smokers and 10 will be non smokers.
Chapter 3: Data Analysis
It is the most crucial part of research process ans in this the scholar aims at making assumption on the basis of collected data through primary sources and with the help of Literature which helps in determining the effectiveness of collected data. Combination primary gathered information and literature assist the scholar in making framing appropriate and reliable hypothetical assumption. In this research process the researcher will analyse the data with the help of thematic analysis where theme of study will be formulated on with the help of research objectives and questions (Geerts, 2011). Thus, in analysis process investigator will interpret ate gathered data in to draw accurate and reliable conclusion on implication of Cigarette Packing pictorial warning labels on Buyers.
Chapter 4: Ethics And Values
Ethics and values are the base of conducting research process as it helps the scholar in determining the right and wrong of the situation. In this the researcher is liable to consider the importance of morals, beliefs, values, of people who are involved in research process (Ormerod and Ulrich, 2013). It is important for the researcher to ensure that research process and collection of information is done through considering ethics ans it is the technique which assist researcher in making investigation effective. Further it is important for the researcher to seek for permission form responsible authorities before conducting research as it is beneficial in carrying out smooth process and preventing harm to human emotion and feelings.
Books and journal
Ormerod, J. R. and Ulrich, W., 2013. Operational research and ethics: A literature review.European Journal of Operational Research.228(2). Pp.291-307.
Rubin, A. and Babbie, E.R., 2016.Empowerment series: Research methods for social work. Cengage Learning.
Sobh, R. and Perry, C., 2016. Research design and data analysis in realism research.European Journal of Marketing. 40(11/12). pp.1194â€"1209.
Kumar, R., 2014.Research Methodology: A Step-by-Step Guide for Beginners. SAGE.
Rubin, A. and Babbie, E.R., 2016.Empowerment series: Research methods for social work. Cengage Learning.
Hogg, K. M., 2010. Composing Qualitative Research.Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal. 11(4). pp.439â€"443.
Geerts, G. L., 2011. A design science research methodology and its application to accounting information systems research.ÂInternational Journal of Accounting Information Systems. 12(2). pp.142-151.
Romer, D., Ferguson, S.G. and Peters, E., 2017. Effects of Pictorial Warning Labels for Cigarettes and Quit-Efficacy on Emotional Responses, Smoking Satisfaction, and Cigarette Consumption.Annals of Behavioral Medicine.pp.1-12.
Noar, S.M., Francis, D.B. and Ribisl, K.M., 2017. Effects of strengthening cigarette pack warnings on attention and message processing: A systematic review.Journalism & mass communication quarterly.94(2). pp.416-442.
Hall, M.G. And et.al., 2017. Negative affect, message reactance and perceived risk: how do pictorial cigarette pack warnings change quit intentions?.Tobacco control, pp.tobaccocontrol-2017.